English language Quiz 12, based on Reading Comprehension

READING COMPREHENSION Quiz 12

Reading Comprehension is asked in all government and banking exams. Reading comprehension is a difficult topic to understand because it takes time and might go wrong if students do not understand the paragraph. Candidates should devote a substantial amount of time to answering Reading Comprehension Questions. Generally, 5-10 questions are asked from Reading Comprehension in competitive exams. In this article, we have come up with the Reading Comprehension Quiz with a detailed explanation. All types of Reading Comprehension Questions for prelims and mains are included in this Reading Comprehension Quiz. This Reading Comprehension Quiz is completely FREE. Candidates should thoroughly go through this Reading Comprehension Quiz in order to enhance their preparation for upcoming exams.

Directions (1-5): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

As part of its continuing campaign to prevent China from stealing American intellectual property, President Donald Trump’s administration is considering restrictions on the number of Chinese citizens enrolled at US colleges and universities. Targeting foreign students will undermine US competitiveness, not enhance it. Of the 1 million foreign nationals enrolled at US schools, nearly one-third are from China—double the number of any other country. Chinese students receive 10% of all doctorates awarded in the US, most of them in science and engineering. Some 80% of Chinese doctoral holders stay in the US and work after they earn their degrees. There are more Chinese engineers working on artificial intelligence at US technology companies than in all of China.

The gains to the US economy aren’t limited to Silicon Valley. Chinese students spend at least $12 billion a year on tuition and living expenses—money that supports hundreds of thousands of jobs in and around college campuses. High fees for international students subsidize tuition for US citizens and—until recently—have helped public universities offset cuts in government funding. Such benefits are largely dismissed by those who cast Chinese students in the US as national security threats. President Trump’s national security strategy calls for the government to consider restrictions on “foreign STEM students from designated countries to ensure that intellectual property is not transferred to our competitors.”

The US can and should do more to counter Chinese theft of American trade secrets. But only a tiny fraction of students from China have ever been charged with illegal activity. Singling them out would be both discriminatory and dangerous, potentially fuelling suspicion of law-abiding Americans of Chinese descent.

 

The most sensible strategy to protect the country’s intellectual property isn’t to keep talented foreign students out, but to encourage them to stay in the US and put their knowledge to use—by joining the workforce or starting a business. That’s the purpose of the optional practical training program, which allows foreign students who earn degrees in technical fields to work in the US for up to three years. The Trump administration, true to form, wants to cut the program instead.

Whether the president imposes new quotas on Chinese students, the goal of some of his advisers seems clear: to make “designated” foreigners unwelcome on US campuses. That’s not only un-American, but also self-defeating.

  1. The call of US President Donald Trump against foreign students would lead to

(I) Loss of engineers working on artificial intelligence

(II) Less competitive environment in U.S.

(III)  Complete Safety of American intellectual property

(IV) loss of hundreds of thousands of jobs.

(a) Only (I)

(b) Only (III) and (IV)

(c) Only (I), (III) and (IV)

(d) Only (II), (III) and (IV)

(e) All are correct

Answer & Explanation
Ans. c

Exp. As mentioned in the first and second paragraph of the passage, Donald Trump security call against foreign students would lead to undermining of US competitiveness rather than enhancing them, loss of engineers as well as loss of jobs. Sentence (III) is not correct as it would not lead to complete safety of American’s intellectual property. Hence option (c) is the correct choice.

  1. What is considered as dangerous U.S. economy?

(a) loss of stakes holders in Silicon Valley

(b) Targeting the Chinese students

(c) stealing of American’s intellectual property

(d) Both (b) and (c)

(e) All are correct

Answer & Explanation
Ans. b

Exp. Refer the third paragraph of the passage “Singling them out would be both discriminatory and dangerous, potentially fueling suspicion of law-abiding Americans of Chinese descent.”

  1. Which of the following is an appropriate title of the passage?

(a) Threat to U.S. economy

(b) Restricting STEM students

(c) The unworthy move of U.S.

(d) Saving U.S. security

(e) Limiting the work on A.I.

Answer & Explanation
Ans. c

Exp. “The unworthy move of U.S.” is an appropriate title of the passage as the passage discusses the limitations of the move taken by Donald Trump.

  1. Which of the following does not hold true in context to the passage?

(a) U.S. can come up differently for countering the theft of its intellectual property.

(b) Shutting the door for Chinese students would slow down the U.S economy.

(c) Foreign students help the U.S. universities in cutting government funding.

(d) Most of the Chinese scholars lives in U.S. after completing their studies there.

(e) All are correct

Answer & Explanation
Ans. e

Exp. All of the given sentences are correct in context to the passage.

  1. Why restricting the Chinese students may not be the solution?

(a) As it will deteriorate the relationship of U.S. with China.

(b) As Chinese students constitute maximum number of foreign nationals in U.S. schools.

(c) As Chinese students are found less involved in illegal activities.

(d) Both (b) and (c)

(e) All of the above

Answer & Explanation
Ans. d

Exp. According to the passage, restricting the Chinese students may not help U.S. to avoid the stealing of its security.

Directions (6-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

Futurist Arthur C. Clarke wrote, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” The magic of software (giving data and rules to get answers) is often confused with the magic of machine learning (giving data and answers to get rules) but it is machine learning not software that is transforming the world of computer chess. So far, computer chess programs codified the actions of the best human players and inevitably pivoted around the strategy of “material”, wherein the number and value of pieces mattered most. But recently, AlphaZero playing Stockfish counter-intuitively sacrificed a bishop for a pawn. Reports suggest AlphaZero taught itself chess from scratch in just four hours by playing against itself and rejected human rules developed over centuries. As it started with only the basic rules, researchers suggest that its lack of knowledge of human chess history may have enabled AlphaZero to see the game in a fresh way. We’d like to make the case that machine learning is transforming online education, but Indian online education is held back by regulatory cholesterol.

Before diving into online education, let’s reflect on challenges in education. Knowing must shift to learning because Google knows everything. Metrics need shifting from inputs to outcomes because only money is not working. Differentiation and personalization are not about making things easier for children but making learning accessible by tapping into motivations and abilities. Assessment needs to shift from annual exams to regular feedback. Teachers knowing content is not the same as their ability to create learning. There is an element of eat your spinach in education, but schools largely work for front-row students. Lifelong learning needs a continuum between prepare, repair and upgrade. Employability is an objective. Timetables are an industrial-era model of one size fits all that blunt choices and learner agency. Most importantly, if you think formal education is everything, then just look at the president of the US.

Many educators agree online learning can transform education, but they don’t know how. Textbook and PowerPoint repackaged e-learning—the digital equivalent of paving the cow path rather than building a highway—mean that, so far, online offerings have not been able to blunt the obvious downsides of physical classrooms (one size fits all, huge costs, uneven teacher quality, etc.) despite obvious advantages (teaching with different speeds to people with different backgrounds and different starting points, class of one, cost, on-the-go, on-demand, crowdsourced, gamified, etc.). We believe that the massification of machine learning could be the missing ingredient—enabling personalization, flip classrooms, rethinking assessments, enabling non-conventional credentialing, etc. Personalization via intelligent tutor systems that track “mental steps” and modify feedback, exercises, explanations and intervention to promote self-regulation, self-monitoring and self-explanation would revolutionize engagement.

A recursive and real-time meta-analysis of learning outcomes across students, cohorts, schools would considerably improve the efficacy of flip classrooms (where classrooms are used for discussions and students finish the lecture and learning in advance). Natural language, computer vision, and deep learning could answer student questions. These systems are infrastructure to improve the signalling value of non-conventional or micro-credentialing, which in turn would discover the cognitive, behavioural and affective preferences for each learner. The biggest impact would be in assessment by moving it from an event to a process and reducing its labour intensity; for instance, tools like Sochobots, Lingolens and Gradescope use computer vision and machine learning to grade students’ work (even stuff like essays).

  1. According to the passage, what does AlphaZero mean for?

(a) to make the machine language understandable
(b) to transform online education
(c) to master the computer chess program.
(d) to analyse the human rules of chess
(e) to make software learning and machine learning distinguishable.

Answer & Explanation
Ans. c

Exp. The lines from first paragraph of the passage “AlphaZero playing Stockfish counter-intuitively sacrificed a bishop for a pawn. Reports suggest AlphaZero taught itself chess from scratch in just four hours by playing against itself and rejected human rules developed over centuries.”, suggests that AlphaZero is a computer program developed to master the game of chess.

  1. The change (s) that education system requires is/ are

(I) providing proper education to all the students not few
(II) Giving the capable teachers an opportunity to create learning.
(III) Avoiding the Command or order type of learning.

(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (II)
(c) Both (II) and (III)
(d) Both (I) and (II)
(e) All are correct

Answer & Explanation
Ans. e

Exp. In reference to the second paragraph of the passage, we can infer that all the sentences refer to the changes required in education system.

  1. How can machine learning contribute to a better education system?

(a) By adhering to a particular standard of qualification
(b) By teaching with different speeds to people with different backgrounds
(c) By interacting with students and making their learning effective
(d) Both (a) and (c)
(e) All are correct

Answer & Explanation
Ans. d

Exp. The last few lines of third paragraph indicates that sentences (a) and (c) are correct.

  1. The appropriate title of the passage is

(a) Improving the efficiency of classrooms
(b) Upgrading the AlphaZero
(c) Drawbacks in current education system
(d) Machine learning and software learning
(e) Machine learning transforming education

Answer & Explanation
Ans. e

Exp. “Machine learning transforming education” is an appropriate title of the passage.

  1. What does the author mean by the sentence “…paving the cow path rather than building a highway”?

(I) e-learning through PowerPoint and textbook offer disadvantages like one size fits all, huge costs, uneven teacher quality.
(II) PowerPoint and textbook learning will not provide a makeshift solution.
(III) PowerPoint e-learning will enhance the learning process making the education system better.

(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (II)
(c) Both (II) and (III)
(d) Both (I) and (II)
(e) All are correct

Answer & Explanation
Ans. d

Exp. Referring the third paragraph of the passage, we can infer that PowerPoint and textbook learning fails to consider the drawbacks like one size fits all, huge costs, uneven teacher quality, etc in front of advantages like teaching with different speeds to people with different backgrounds and different starting points, class of one, cost, on-the-go, on-demand, crowdsourced, gamified, etc and hence fails to provide a makeshift solution. Hence both the sentences (I) and (II) are correct.

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