English language Quiz 1, based on Reading Comprehension
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Directions (1-8): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words and phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Let us turn back to inquire whether sending our capital abroad, and consenting to be taxed to pay emigration fares to get rid of the women and men who are left without employment in consequence, is all that capitalism can do when our employers, who act for out capitalists in industry affairs, and are more or less capitalists themselves in the earlier stages of capitalistic development, find that they can sell no more of their goods at a profit, or indeed at all, in their own country.
Cleary they cannot send abroad the capital they have already invested, because it has all been eaten up by the works leaving in its place factories and railways and mines and the like; and these cannot be packed into a ship’s hold and sent to Africa. It is only the freshly saved capital than can be sent out of the country. This, as we have seen, does go abroad in heaps of finished product. But the British land held by him on long lease, must, when once he has sold all the goods at home that his British customers can afford to buy, either shut up his works until the customers have worn out their stock of what they have bought, which would bankrupt him (for the landlord will not wait), or else sell his superfluous good somewhere else; that is, he must send them abroad. Now it is not easy to send them to civilized countries, because they practise protection, which means that they impose heavy taxes on foreign goods. Uncivilized countries, without protection, and inhabited by natives to whom gaudy calicoes and cheap showy brassware are dazzling and delightful novelties, are the best places to make for at first.
But trader requires a settled government to put down the habit of plundering strangers. This is not a habit of simple tribes, who are often friendly and honest. It is what civilized men do where there is no law to restrain them. Until quite recent times it was extremely dangerous to be wrecked on our coasts, as wrecking, which meant plundering wrecked ships and refraining from any officious efforts to save the lives of their crews was a well-established business in many places on our shores. The Chinese still remember some astonishing outbursts of looting perpetrated by English ladies of high position, at moments when trading was suspended and priceless works of art were to be had for the grabbing. When trading with aborigines begins with the visit of a single ship, the cannons and cutlasses carried may be quite sufficient to overawe the natives if they are troublesome. The real difficulty begins when so many ships come that a little trading station of white men grows up and attracts the white never-do-wells and violent roughs who are always being squeezed out of civilization by the pressure of law and order. It is these riff-raff who turn the place into a sort of hell in which sooner or later missionaries and murdered and traders plundered. Their home governments are appealed to put a stop to this. A gunboat is sent out and inquiry made. The report after the inquiry is that there is nothing to be done but set up a civilized empire. And the civilized taxpayer plays the bill without getting a farthing of the profits. Of course the business does not stop there. The riff-raff who have created the emergency move out just beyond the boundary of the annexed territory, and are as great a nuisance as ever to the traders when they have exhausted the purchasing power of the included natives and push on after fresh customers. Again they call on their home government to civilize a further area; and so bit by bit the civilized empire grows at the expense of the home taxpayers, without any intention or approval on their own country, their own rulers, and their own religious faith; they find that the centre of their beloved realm has shifted to the other hemisphere. That is how we in the British Islands have found our centre moved from London to the Suez Canal, and are now in the position that out of every hundred of our fellow-subjects, in whose defence we are expected to shed the last drop of our blood, only 11 are whites or even Christians. In our bewilderment some of us declare that the Empire is a burden and a blunder, whilst others glory in it as triumph. You and I need not argue with them just now, our point for the moment being that, whether blunder or glory. The British Empire was quite unintentional. What should have been undertaken only as most carefully considered political development has been a series of commercial adventures thrust on us by capitalists forced by their own system to cater to foreign customers before their own country’s need were one-tenth satisfied
Q1. It may be inferred that the passage was written:
(a)When Britain was still a colonial power
(b)When the author was in a bad mood
(c)When the author was working in the foreign service of Britain
(d)When the author’ country was overrun by the British
(e) None of these
Q2.According to the author, the habit of plundering the strangers:
(a)Is usually not found in simple tribes but civilized people
(b)Is usually found in the barbaric tribes of the uncivilized nations
(c)Is a habit limited only to English ladies of high position
(d)Is a usual habit with all white-skinned people
(e) None of these
Q3. Which of the following does not come under the aegis of capital already invested?
(i)Construction of factories
(ii)Development of a mine
(iii)Trade of finished products
(a) Both (i) and (iii)
(b) Both (ii) and (iii)
(c ) Only (i)
(d) Only (iii)
(e)All of the above
Q4. Which of the following may be called the main complaint of the author?
(a)The race of people he belongs to are looters and plunderers
(b)The capitalists are taking over the entire world
(c)It is a way of life for English ladies to loot and plunder
(d)The English taxpayer has to pay for the upkeep of territories he did not want
(e) None of these.
Q5. Why do capitalistic traders prefer the uncivilized countries to the civilized one?
(a)Because they find it easier to rule them
(b)Because civilized countries would make them pay protection duties
(c)Because civilized countries would make their own goods.
(d)Because uncivilized countries like the cheap and gaudy goods of bad quality all capitalists produce.
(e) None of these.
Q6. The word ‘officious’, in the context of the passage, means:
Q7. According to the author, to main reason why capitalist go abroad to sell their good is:
(i)That they want to civilize the underdeveloped countries of the world by giving them their goods
(ii)That they have to have new places to sell their surplus goods somewhere in new markets
(iii)That they actually want to rule new lands and selling goods in an excuse
(a) Only (i)
(b) both (ii) an (iii)
(c) Only (iii)
(d) Both (ii) and (i)
(e)None of the above
Directions (Q8): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
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