English Quiz 10 based on Reading Comprehension for Banks and SSC exam

English Quiz 10 based on Reading Comprehension for Banks and SSC exam

Reading Comprehension is asked in all government and banking exams.

Reading comprehension is a tricky topic because it takes time and can go wrong if the aspirants do not understand the paragraph. Candidates should devote a substantial amount of time to answering Reading Comprehension Questions. Generally, 5-10 questions are asked from Reading Comprehension in competitive exams. In this article, we have come up with the Reading Comprehension Quiz with a detailed explanation. All types of Reading Comprehension Questions for prelims and mains are included in this Reading Comprehension Quiz. This Reading Comprehension Quiz is completely FREE. Candidates should thoroughly go through this Reading Comprehension Quiz in order to enhance their preparation for upcoming exams.

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

The 2017 global burden of disease report for India confirmed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like heart disease, cancer, lung disease and diabetes, have overtaken infectious diseases as our major killers. NCDs cause two-thirds of deaths in India. They are also economically harmful: NCDs are expected to result in a global output loss of $47 trillion between 2011 and 2031. NCDs are often referred to as “lifestyle diseases” since certain preventable behaviours—especially tobacco and alcohol use, an unhealthy diet and physical inactivity—increase their risk or cause them. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80% of all heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes and 40% of cancers are preventable.

But, referring to NCDs as “lifestyle diseases” is misleading. It implies that people can make simple choices to change their behaviour when the reality is far more complex. A considerable body of work in behavioural science has shown that people are poor at calibrating their risks and are not always aware of how their decisions have been influenced. As a consequence, their choices can be at odds with what would be considered “rational” behaviour. By recognizing these influences, policy makers can harness them into a force for good. Informed by this evidence, at Vital Strategies, a global health organization that works with governments to strengthen public health systems, we offer key strategies for designing effective policies to promote healthy choices that prevent and control NCDs.

People are prone to making choices that require the least effort. They have a latent tendency to accept the status quo. This principle has been applied effectively to promote healthy diets. The government can promote healthy food choices by making fresh and nutritious foods easily accessible. There are several examples of how this can be done. They can subsidize healthy retail options, or incentivize mobile vegetable and fruit vendors in a wide array of neighbourhoods. It can also promote a healthy diet by limiting the portion size and salt in restaurants, limiting sodium content in packaged foods, and banning the use of unhealthy trans-fats in processed foods and outlets selling them. The government can also influence healthy choices by placing unhealthy products out of reach. For example, ban on the sale of tobacco or alcohol near schools protect against the marketing tactics of these products to the impressionable youth. Removal of unhealthy products from points of sale where people tend to make impulse purchases protects people from making hasty, poor choices.

Our ability to make rational, health-promoting decisions is often compromised by the daily need to wade through volumes of complex information when we have to arrive at quick decisions. To ease decision-making, we use mental short-cuts, such as assuming that if certain products are ubiquitous, they must be safe. And if coupled with aggressive marketing—like in the case of tobacco, alcohol, processed foods—this impression is even more trenchant. To help counter these misleading prompts, it is critical that public authorities provide citizens with clear, simple and accurate information to guide their decisions. Public education campaigns, such as the government’s recent campaign on the harms of tobacco and second-hand smoke, are cost-effective ways of creating social behavioural change—especially when combined with the implementation and enforcement of relevant regulations. Warning labels on unhealthy products serve a similar purpose as they provide quick reminders at the point of purchase about the product’s harmful effects.

 

The environment—both physical and social—provides behavioural triggers, and can be used to shape healthy behaviours. City planners use spatial design—which focuses on how and why people flow between places—to promote physical activity, reduce injuries and reduce pollution. For example, by making stairs more noticeable or reducing the number of escalators in shopping malls, they may promote physical activity. Laws can serve a similar function of signalling acceptable social norms. Ban on smoking in public places—like those Bengaluru has adopted under its SmokeFree City Initiative—is an example of regulation that signals what is permissible and acceptable. NCDs can be ignored at one’s own peril. We know that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound in cure, but we also know that people do not have perfect agency on their behaviour—they are often victims of their environments and their own bounded rationality. Policies at the city, state and national levels can help make the necessary corrections to make healthy options the default and create the necessary preconditions for healthy behaviour. It is in our social and economic interest to do so.

  1. Which type of behavior of people can be implied from the passage?

(a) People are careless as they treat the non- communicable diseases as customary.
(b) People are incompetent towards making the right choices for their own health.
(c) People are quite unknown to their own choices or behaviour when it comes to assess the severity of the NCDs.
(d) People are passive towards expressing and adopting the right choices.
(e) All of the above

Answer & Explanation
Ans. cs

Exp. From the passage we can imply that people are ignorant of their own choices towards seriousness of the non- communicable diseases. Hence option (c) is the right choice.

  1. According to the passage, what does “lifestyle diseases” signify?

(a) The reluctance in adopting healthy habits leading to non- communicable diseases that can be preventable.
(b) Diseases that can ameliorate the way in which people lives.

(c) Diseases are dependent on the choices made by the people.
(d) Both (a) and (c)
(e) All are correct

Answer & Explanation
Ans. d

Exp. According to the first paragraph of the passage, we can infer that both the sentences (a) and (c) are correct. “lifestyle diseases” since certain preventable behaviours—especially tobacco and alcohol use, an unhealthy diet and physical inactivity—increase their risk or cause them.

  1. What is/ are the way (s) by which NCDs can be checked?
    (I) Providing information that is simple, clear and actionable hence easing decision making.

(II) Making healthy choices the default.

(III) Using environmental signals to steer people towards healthy behavior.

(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (II)
(c) Both (I) and (II)
(d) Both (II) and (III)
(e) All are correct

Answer & Explanation
Ans. e

Exp. All the sentences are pointing towards controlling of the non- communicable diseases. Hence option (e) is the correct choice.

  1. Which of the following sentences does not hold true in the context of the passage?

(a) Non- communicable diseases will lead to the loss of 47 trillion lives globally.
(b) Smoking in public places of Bengaluru is prohibited.
(c) Government should implement necessary steps to make healthy fruits and vegetables easily accessible.
(d) Policies at various levels like state, city and national level need to be implemented.
(e) All are correct.

Answer & Explanation
Ans. a

Exp. According to the first paragraph of the passage, sentence (a) is not correct as NCDs is expected to lead the loss of $47 trillion.

  1. What does the author mean by the statement “NCDs can be ignored at one’s own peril”?

 

(a) NCDs are very dangerous diseases which should not be ignored by people.
(b) NCDs can be prevented only if people are fully aware of its causes.
(c) NCDs cannot be cured, it can only be prevented.
(d) NCDs caused mainly due to unhealthy choices made by people hence its prevention is dependent on them.
(e) The unhealthy behavior is very dangerous for one’s health which cannot be ignored.

Answer & Explanation
Ans. d

Exp.  “NCDs can be ignored at one’s own peril” implies that one is himself responsible for the disease caused by his own unhealthy choices. Hence option (d) is correct.

  1. The appropriate title of the passage is

(a) Towards a better nation
(b) Making our cities smoke free
(c) Nudging people towards a healthier life
(d) Government’s efforts towards a healthy nation
(e) Minimising the cases of NCDs.

Answer & Explanation
Ans. c
Exp. “Nudging people towards a healthier life” is an appropriate title of the passage.

Directions (7-8): Which of the following alternatives among the five options provides the most similar meaning(s) of the word given in BOLD as used in the passage?

  1. Trenchant

(A) strenuous
(B) mordant
(C) vigorous
(D) fierce

(a) Only (A)
(b) Only (C)
(c) Only (B), (C) and(D)
(d) Only (A), (C) and (D)
(e) All of the above

Answer & Explanation
Ans. e

Exp. Trenchant means vigorous or incisive in expression or style. Hence all the words are similar in meaning as Trenchant.

  1. Hasty

(A) munificent
(B) hegemonic
(C) expeditious
(D) entrench

(a) Only (A)
(b) Only (C)
(c) Only (B), (C) and(D)
(d) Only (A), (C) and (D)
(e) All of the above

Answer & Explanation
Ans. b

Exp. Hasty means done with excessive speed or urgency; hurried. Hence it has the same meaning as expeditious.

Directions (9- 10): Which of the following alternatives among the five options provides the most opposite meaning(s) of the word given in BOLD as used in the passage?

  1. Prone

(A) resistant
(B) improbable
(C) credible
(D) unlikely

(a) Only (A)
(b) Only (C)
(c) Only (B), (C) and(D)
(d) Only (A), (B) and (D)
(e) All of the above

Answer & Explanation
Ans. d

Exp. Prone means likely or liable to suffer from, do, or experience something unpleasant or regrettable, which is opposite in meaning to resistant, improbable and unlikely.

  1. Harness

(A) curb
(B) rebuff
(C) stricture
(D) underuse

(a) Only (B)
(b) Only (D)
(c) Only (B), (C) and(D)
(d) Only (A), (B) and (D)
(e) All of the above

Answer & Explanation
Ans. b

Exp. Harness means control and make use of. Hence it has the opposite meaning to underuse.

English Grammar Rules

Read More The Hindu Editorial Vocab

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