English Quiz 4 based on Reading comprehension for Banks and SSC exam

English Quiz 4 based on Reading comprehension for Banks and SSC Exam

Reading comprehension t Quiz is an important component of English section in banking and other government examinations . Reading comprehension becomes very scoring if attempted in a right way. Our website provides better approach for Reading comprehension. We provide Reading comprehension for IBPS PO, SBI PO, RRB PO, SBI clerk, IBPS PO, SSC exam. Reading comprehension is designed from beginner to advance level. Reading comprehension involves all the types of Reading comprehension for prelims and mains level. Our Reading comprehension quiz will help many students in having a good grip on reading comprehension . Reading comprehension will increase their overall score. Reading comprehension is a must have tool to the marks.

Directions (1-9): Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words/phrases in the passage are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

 

Japan began the 19th century as it had existed for centuries; A Tokugawa Shogun ruled through a central bureaucracy tied by feudal alliances to local daimyos and samurai. Taxes were based on agriculture and the samurai were sustained by stipends paid to them by the shogun ate. Culturally, Japan had two things going for it: 1. Neo-Confucianism grew among the elite (this fostered a secularism which spared Japan from the religious resistance to western based reform) 2. Japan was also homogenous ethnically.

There would not be small pockets of ethnic groups pining for independence as in Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Japan’s window to Europe continued to be the port city of Nagasaki where Dutch Studies continued.  Otherwise, its isolation continued until midcentury.

In the eighteenth century, Japans feudal overlords, from the shogun to the humblest samurai, found themselves under financial stress. In part, this stress can be attributed to the overlords failure to adjust to a rapidly expanding economy, but the stress was also due to factors beyond the overlords control. Concentration of the samurai in castle-towns had acted as a stimulus to trade. Commercial efficiency, in turn, had put temptations in the way of buyers. Since most samurai had been reduced to idleness by years of peace, encouraged to engage in scholarship and martial exercises or to perform administrative tasks that took little time, it is not surprising that their tastes and habits grew expensive. Overlords income, despite the increase in rice production among their tenant farmers, failed to keep pace with their expenses. Although shortfalls in overlords income resulted almost as much from laxity among their tax collectors (the nearly inevitable outcome of hereditary office holding) as from their higher standards of living, a misfortune like a fire or flood, bringing an increase in expenses or a drop in revenue, could put a domain in debt to the city rice-brokers who handled its finances. Once in debt, neither the individual samurai nor the shogun himself found it easy to recover.

It was difficult for individual samurai overlords to increase their income because the amount of rice that farmers could be made to pay in taxes was not unlimited, and since the income of Japans central government consisted in part of taxes collected by the shogun from his huge domain, the government too was constrained. Therefore, the Tokugawa shoguns began to look to other sources for revenue. Cash profits from government-owned mines were already on the decline because the most easily worked deposits of silver and gold had been exhausted, although debasement of the coinage had compensated for the loss. Opening up new farmland was a possibility, but most of what was suitable had already been exploited and further reclamation was technically unfeasible. Direct taxation of the samurai themselves would be politically dangerous. This left the shoguns only commerce as a potential source of government income.

Most of the countrys wealth, or so it seemed, was finding its way into the hands of city merchants. It appeared reasonable that they should contribute part of that revenue to ease the shoguns burden of financing the state. A means of obtaining such revenue was soon found by levying forced ioans, known as goyokin; although these were not taxes in the strict sense, since they were irregular in timing and arbitrary in amount, they were high in yield. Unfortunately, they pushed up prices. Thus, regrettably, the Tokugawa shoguns search for solvency for the government made it increasingly difficult for individual Japanese who lived on fixed stipends to make ends meet.

Q1. The passage is most probably an excerpt from
(a) an economic history of Japan
(b) the memoirs of a samurai warrior
(c) a modern novel about eighteenth-century Japan
(d) an essay contrasting Japanese feudalism with its Western counterpart
(e) an introduction to a collection of Japanese folktales

Answer & Explanation
Ans.1. (a)

Exp. The passage is most probably an excerpt from
(a) an economic history of Japan
Passage talks of economic elements like tax, Trade, commerce, tax collectors etc. As well, it points to scenario in past covering economic shape at that time.

Q2. Which of the following financial situations is most analogous to the financial situation in which Japans Tokugawa shoguns found themselves in the eighteenth century?
(a) A small business borrows heavily to invest in new equipment, but is able to pay off its debt early when it is awarded a lucrative government contract.
(b) Fire destroys a small business, but insurance covers the cost of rebuilding.
(c) A small business is turned down for a loan at a local bank because the owners have no credit history?
(d) A small business has to struggle to meet operating expenses when its profits decrease.
(e) A small business is able to cut back sharply on spending through greater commercial efficiency and thereby compensate for a loss of revenue.

Answer & Explanation
Ans. 2.(d)

Exp.  Levying forced loan was supposed to increase the revenue so that economic situation could be better. However, loan increased the prices while the income was fixed and hence purchasing power decreased and thus nullifying the positive impact of the remedial effort. It’s a kind of deadlock situation.

Q3. Which of the following best describes the attitude of the author toward the samurai?

(a) Warmly approving
(b)Mildly sympathetic 
(c) Bitterly disappointed
(d) Harshly disdainful
(e) Profoundly shocked

Answer & Explanation
Ans. 3.(b)

Exp.  Mildly sympathetic
Just picked based on the tone of the passage.

Q4. According to the passage, the major reason for the financial problems experienced by Japans feudal overlords in the eighteenth century was that
(a) spending had outdistanced income
(b) trade had fallen off
(c) profits from mining had declined
(d) the coinage had been sharply debased
(e) the samurai had concentrated in castle-towns

Answer & Explanation
Ans. 4.(a)

Exp. According to the passage, the major reason for the financial problems experienced by Japan’s feudal overlords in the eighteenth century was that (a) spending had outdistanced income income, despite the increase in rice production among their tenant farmers, failed to keep pace with their expenses. Rest are the reasons/evidences why couldn’t they keep up with growing economy.

Q5.The passage implies that individual samurai did not find it easy to recover from debt for which of the following reasons?
(a) Agricultural production had increased.
(b) Taxes were irregular in timing and arbitrary in amount.
(c) The Japanese government had failed to adjust to the needs of a changing economy.
(d) The domains of samurai overlords were becoming smaller and poorer as government revenues increased.
(e) There was a limit to the amount in taxes that farmers could be made to pay.

Answer & Explanation
Ans. 5.(e)

Exp . There was a limit to the amount in taxes that farmers could be made to pay
based on -“It was difficult for individual samurai overlords to increase their income because the amount of rice that farmers could be made to pay in taxes was not unlimited”
The taxes were not unlimited meaning there was a limit to it.

Q6. The passage suggests that, in eighteenth-century Japan, the office of tax collector
(a) was a source of personal profit to the officeholder
(b) was regarded with derision by many Japanese
(c) remained within families
(d) existed only in castle-towns
(e) took up most of the officeholders time

Answer & Explanation
Ans.6. (c)

Exp. The passage suggests that, in eighteenth-century Japan, the office of tax collector based on “the nearly inevitable outcome of hereditary office-holding”

Q7.  According to the passage, the actions of the Tokugawa shoguns in their search for solvency for the government were regrettable because those actions

(a) raised the cost of living by pushing up prices

(b) resulted in the exhaustion of the most easily worked deposits of silver and gold

(c) were far lower in yield than had originally been anticipated

(d) did not succeed in reducing government spending

(e) acted as a deterrent to trade

Answer & Explanation
Ans. 7.(a)

Exp. Direct question based on the sentence – Unfortunately, they pushed up prices. Thus, regrettably, the Tokugawa shoguns’ search for solvency for the government made it increasingly difficult for individual Japanese who lived on fixed stipends to make ends meet.

Directions (8): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

Q8. Ethnically

(a) nifty

(b) snazzy

(c) chic

(d) sassy

(e) ancestral

Answer & Explanation
Ans. 8.(e)

Exp. Ethnically relating to a population subgroup (within a larger or dominant national or cultural group) with a common national or cultural tradition. Ancestral of belonging to, or inherited from an ancestor or ancestors.

Directions (9): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

Q9. Debasement

(a) augment

(b) humiliate

(c) blemish

(d) contaminate

(e) taint

Answer & Explanation
Ans. 9.(a)

Exp. Debasement  reduce (something) in quality or value; degrade. Augment make (something) greater by adding to it; increase.

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