Gandhi Jayanti 2nd October : 150th Anniversary
Full Name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Born: 2 October 1869
Born Location: Porbandar (also known as Sudamapuri)
Father: Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi ( diwan (chief minister) of Porbandar state)
Mother: Putlibai Gandhi
Wife: Kasturba Gandhi
Son: Harilal (born in 1888) Manilal (born in 1892) Ramdas (born in 1897) and Devdas, born in 1900
Congress President: 1924
Political Guru: Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Note: In April 1893, Gandhi aged 23, set sail for South Africa to be the lawyer for Abdullah’s cousin. He spent 21 years in South Africa, where he developed his political views, ethics and politics.
Mahatma Gandhi return in India
Gandhi returned to India in 1915 (Request of Gopal Krishna Gokhale)
Gandhi joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gokhale.
Gandhi took leadership of the Congress in 1920 and began escalating demands until on 26 January 1930 the Indian National Congress declared the independence of India.
Major Movements Led by Mahatma Gandhi
Champaran Movement (1917): The Champaran rebellion in Bihar was the first active involvement of Gandhi in the Indian freedom struggle. The British forced the farmers to grow indigo and other cash crops on their fertile land, and then sell these crops to them at a much cheaper price. The situation became more gruesome for the farmers due to harsh weather conditions and levy of heavy taxes pushing them towards abject poverty. Having heard of the situation of farmers at Champaran, Gandhi immediately paid a visit to this district in April 1917. He adopted the approach of civil disobedience movement and launched demonstrations and strikes against the landlords bringing them down on their very knees. As a result, they signed an agreement in which they granted control and compensations to the farmers, and canceled the hikes in revenue and collection. The success of this movement earned Gandhi the status of Mahatma.
Kheda Movement (1918): Kheda movement was the consequence of the financial atrocities afflicted by the British landlords on the farmers of the Kheda village in Gujarat. The village was massively affected by the floods and famine in 1918 which resulted in the destruction of the crop yields. The farmers requested the British government to exempt them from the payment of taxes but the authorities refused. Under the leadership of Gandhi and Vallabhbhai Patel, the farmers launched a crusade against the government and pledged for the non-payment of taxes.
Khilafat Movement (1919): In 1919 after the World War I was over, Gandhi sought political co-operation from Muslims in his fight against British imperialism by supporting the Ottoman Empire that had been defeated in the World War. Before this initiative of Gandhi, communal disputes and religious riots between Hindus and Muslims were common in British India, such as the riots of 1917–18.
Gandhi felt that Hindu-Muslim co-operation was necessary for political progress against the British. He leveraged the Khilafat movement, wherein Sunni Muslims in India, their leaders such as the sultans of princely states in India and Ali brothers championed the Turkish Caliph as a solidarity symbol of Sunni Islamic community (ummah). They saw the Caliph as their means to support Islam and the Islamic law after the defeat of Ottoman Empire in World War I. Gandhi’s support to the Khilafat movement led to mixed results. It initially led to a strong Muslim support for Gandhi. However, the Hindu leaders including Rabindranath Tagore questioned Gandhi’s leadership because they were largely against recognising or supporting the Sunni Islamic Caliph in Turkey.
Jinnah began creating his independent support, and later went on to lead the demand for West and East Pakistan.
By the end of 1922 the Khilafat movement had collapsed. Turkey’s Ataturk had ended the Caliphate, Khilafat movement ended, and Muslim support for Gandhi largely evaporated.Muslim leaders and delegates abandoned Gandhi and his Congress.Hindu-Muslim communal conflicts reignited.
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920): Jallianwala Bagh Massacre was the only reason behind the commencement of the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. It shook Gandhi to the core making him realized that the Britishers were successful in enjoying control over Indians because of the cooperation they are getting from them. This was the moment when he decided to launch a Non-Cooperation Movement.
But soon this movement was ended by Gandhi himself after it led to Chauri Chaura incident in which 23 police officials were killed.
Civil Disobedience Movement: Dandi March and Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1930,31): The Civil disobedience movement was a vital part of Indian freedom struggle led by Mahatma Gandhi against the ruling colonial government. While addressing the nation in a newspaper, Young India, in March 1930, Gandhi expressed his willingness to suspend the movement if his eleven demands get accepted by the government. But Lord Irwin’s government did not respond back to him. As a result, he initiated the movement in full vigor. The movement began with the Dandi March which was led by Gandhi on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi in Gujarat. After reaching Dandi, Gandhi and his followers violated the salt laws by making salt from the salted sea water.
The Lord Irwin’s government called for a round Table conference in 1930 in London and the Indian National Congress refused to be a part of it. Just to make sure that Congress attend the second roundtable conference, Lord Irwin signed a pact with the Gandhi in 1931. It was called the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The pact talked about the releasing of all the political prisoners and cancellation of all the oppressive laws.
Quit India Movement (1942): Quit India movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi on 8th August 1942 during the second world war in order to drive British rule out of India. The India Congress Committee, under the insistence of Gandhi, demanded a mass British withdrawal from India and Gandhi delivered a “Do or Die” speech.
Mahatma Gandhi sobriquet list
Father of Indian Nation: (Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose gave Gandhiji the title)
Mahatma: ( Rabindranath Tagore gave Gandhiji the title)
Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 in the compound of Birla House (now Gandhi Smriti), a large mansion in New Delhi. His assassin was Nathuram Godse, a member of the political party the Hindu Mahasabha, Godse considered Gandhi to have been responsible for Partition of India in the previous year.