PARA 13.2|IC 57, Fire Insurance|ONE LINER|CHAPTER 3

PARA 13.2|IC 57, Fire Insurance|ONE LINER|CHAPTER 3

Insurance exams offered by the Insurance Institute of India (III), consist of various papers either in Life or Non Life or Combined. Here we are providing ONE LINER IC 57, Fire Insurance Chapter 3 “Fire Hazard and Fire Prevention” for para 13.2 and III exam . These questions will be very helpful for upcoming promotional exam.

IC 57 / Fire Insurance is a very important topic in insurance promotional exam. This IC 57 / Fire Insurance paper comes in all GIPSA exams which makes it very important.

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♦Chapter 3 “Fire Hazard and Fire Prevention”

  1. Fire HazardsThe term “Fire Hazards” refers to not only the causes of fires but also those circumstances which increase the probability of fires occurring, or which enable fires to spread and increase the loss.
  2. The system of fire insurance rating is based on classification of risks, which in turn is based on assessment of fire hazards and loss experience in each class.
  3. fire prevention is directed not only at preventing the origin of fires but also at preventing their spreading.
  4. Types of fire hazards
  • Originating Hazards
  • Contributory Hazards
  • Hazards arising from Construction
  1. Originating Hazards are common cause arranged in order of their frequency of occurrence are Smoking, Friction, Lighting, Chemical action, Hot Surface etc.
  2. Smoking-This is a potential cause of fire almost everywhere. Discipline, control and education of employees will minimise this hazard to a considerable extent.
  3. Friction-Friction due to hot bearings, misaligned machine parts, poor adjustment of power drives and conveyors etc.
  4. Lightning-Fires have been known to originate from direct lightning strike and sparks from one object to another induced nearby lightning strike.
  5. Chemical Action-Fires can also originate by chemical processes going out of control, chemicals reacting with other materials and decomposition of unstable chemicals.
  6. Hot Surfaces-The hazard from due to heat from boilers, furnaces, electric lamps, hot process metal igniting flammable liquids and ordinary combustibles.
  7. Contributory Hazards- These hazards increase the probability of a fire occurring or which enableor permit fires, to spread and increase the loss.
  1. Absence of people to raise the alarm in case of fire.
  2. Locked or inaccessible premises or isolated premises.
  3. Construction-The building constructed with much woodwork, having internal wooden partitions, storied building, building having many floor openings, building of large size without internal compartments, etc.
  4. Fire load is defined as the quantity of heat liberated, per unit of floor area, when a building and its contents are completely burnt.
  5. Mathematical formula for calculating fire load- The nature of the combustible materials must be known, so that the calorific values per kilogram of such materials can be obtained from calorific value tables. The weights of the combustible materials are multiplied by their respective calorific values. The products so arrived are added and the result is divided by the floor area to arrive at fire load.
  6. 16. Low fire load: Generally, residential premises, offices, hotels, etc.
  7. 17. Moderate fire load: Generally retail shops and factory buildings.
  8. High fire load: Generally bulk storage godowns and warehouses.
  9. “Fire resistance” gives the time span during which a construction offers resistance to a standard fire.
  10. To evaluate fire resistance,
  • Constructional hazards
  • Exposure hazards
  • Height
  • Size
  • Silent risk
  • Hazards arising from goods
  • Miscellaneous hazards
  1. Construction hazards-While considering the hazards of construction, the components of the structure which are considered are mainly those comprising the exterior or shell of the building
  2. Concrete or reinforced cement concrete-These walls have better fire resistance than brickwork or masonry.
  3. Timber-Where the walls are constructed entirely of timber, it is clear that a serious fire hazard exists, as all timber is combustible and an effective fire-proofing medium has not yet been discovered for it.
  4. Glass-Buildings having sides of glass are susceptible to considerable exposure hazard. Besides, fire-fighting operations would be considerably impeded with fragments of glass showering down on the fire-fighting personnel.
  5. Roof-The roof of a building is normally provided as a weather protection against sun, rain and other elements of nature.
  6. Tarred or bituminous felt-Tarred or bituminous felt laid on wood is easily ignited and burns freely.
  7. Exposure Hazard-A wide definition of exposure is “the likelihood of a building or its contents sustaining damage or becoming ignited by reason of a fire in adjoining or neighbouring premises”.
  8. Height- The hazard of height is to be distinguished from that of size. A single storey building having ground floor only is known as a shed structure and a storied building is inferior to a shed structure from hazards point of view.
  9. water used in extinguishing a fire on one of the upper floors may damage property on lower floors, either by flowing through floor openings or by percolating through floors.
  10. Size-The greater the size of the building, the greater will be the fire hazard. Further there is more value at risk in a large building than in a small one. Because of the large size, it is more difficult to locate and fight an outbreak of fire.
  11. Silent Risk- A manufacturing risk is deemed to be silent when it is not used for manufacturing and storage purposes. A lower rate of premium is charged for the silent period but a warranty is inserted stating that during the currency of the policy, the said premises are silent and that no part of the machinery is used for the purpose of manufacture.
  12. Hazards arising from Goods-The Tariff classifies goods into hazardous and extra-hazardous are Ease of Ignition, Method of Packing , Interaction with other materials, Toxicity.
  13. Miscellaneous Hazards-Apart from hazards arising out of construction, exposure etc., there are hazards of fire, explosion etc. involved in manufacturing equipment and activities.
  14. Fire prevention has been dealt with at appropriate places. Fire prevention has another dimension viz. loss reduction through fire detection and fire extinguishment, which together constitute fire protection.
  15. For extinguishing fire in open tanks of certain high flashing flammable liquids and for protecting storage tanks containing low flashing hazardous liquids or gases against heat from an exposure fire.
  16. Failure to provide the appropriate safeguards in the storage and use of hazardous material.
  17. The installation of unsuitable types of heating and lighting arrangements.
  18. Failure to safeguard all supplies of power, lighting and heating when the premises are left unattended.
  19. Fire extinguishing appliances either not provided for or, are insufficient in number, not properly distributed or maintained.
  20. Buildings, boundary walls etc, in a poor state of repair and thus vulnerable to external fires.
  21. When fire is detected in its early stages, trained personnel can easily extinguish it using first aid appliances. Automatic fire detection systems can thus help minimise fire losses. These detectors are activated by smoke, radiation or heat.
  22. Fire load is defined as the quantity of heat liberated, per unit of floor area, when a building and its contents are completely burnt.

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