Computer Terminology

Computer terminology

  • Access – To call up information out of storage.
  • Access time – The amount of time it takes for requested information to be delivered from disks and memory.
  • Adapter – A circuit board that plugs into a computer and gives it additional capabilities.
  • Amplifier -A device that takes in a weak electric signal and sends out a strong one.
  • Analog Computer – A computer that operates on data which is in the form of continuous variable physical quantities.
  • Android – It is a linux based operating system designed Primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets computer.
  • Algorithm – A step-by-step procedure designed to solve a problem or achieve an objective.
  • Backup – Storage of duplicate files on disks, diskettes, or some other form of magnetic medium (such as tapes) as a safety measure in case the original medium is damaged or lost.
  • Basic Input Output System (BIOS) – Also known as ROM BIOS. It provides a abstraction layer for the hardware, i.e., a consistent way for application programs and operating system to interact with input/output devices.
  • Binary code – The language used by computers in which data and instructions are represented by a series of 1s and 0s.
  • Bug – A software bug is an error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system produces an incorrect or unexpected result.
  • Bus – A pathway along which electronic signals travel between the components of a computer system.
  • Binary numbering system – A numbering system in which all numbers are represented by various combinations of the digits 0 and 1.
  • Command – An instruction that causes a program or computer to perform a function.
  • Compiler -A compiler is a computer program that -translates a series of instructions written in one computer language (called the source language) into another computer language (also called the object or target language).
  • Communication The transrnission of data from one computer to another or from one device to another is called communication.
  • Computer Graphics- Computer Graphics are visual presentations on a computer screen. Examples are photographs, drawings, line arts, graphs, diagrams, typography numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings or other images.
  • Cold Boot When a computer restarts after the power cut is called cold boot
  • Control Panel – It is the part of Windows menu. accessible from the start menu, which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls, such as adding hardware. adding/removing software, controlling user accounts, changing accessibility options, etc.
  • Chat – A method of communication in which people type text messages to each other, thereby holding a conversation over a network such as the Internet.
  • Clipboard – A holding area in memory where information that has been copied or cut (text, graphics, sound, or video) can be stored until the information is inserted elsewhere.
  • Cookie – A packet of information that travels between a browser and the web server.
  • Crash A malfunction in hardware or software that keeps a computer from functioning.
  • Crawler – It is an Internet bot which systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing (web spidering).
  • Data – Information consisting of letters, numbers, symbols, sound, or images—in a form that can be processed by a computer.
  • Database – A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.
  • Data abstraction – It is the reduction of a particular body of data to a simplified representation of the whole.
  • Data processing – It refers to the process of collecting and manipulating raw data to yield useful information.
  • Disk Operating System (DOS) – A disk operating system (abbreviated DOS) is a computer operating system that can use a disk storage device, such as a floppy disk, hard disk drive, or optical disc.
  • Debugging – Locating and eliminating defects in a program.
  • Delete – A command to erase information in storage.
  • Directory – A list of the files stored on a disk.
  • Dots Per Inch (DPI) It is defined as the measure of the resolution of a printer, scanner or monitor
  • Download –A copy (data) from one computer system to another, typically over the Internet.
  • Editing – The process of changing information by inserting, deleting, replacing, rearranging, and reformatting.
  • EDO (Extended Data Output) RAM is a type of random access memory (RAM) chip that improves the time to read from memory on faster microprocessors such as the Intel Pentium.
  • Ethernet Card – A network adapter that enables a computer to connect to an ethernet.
  • Execution Time The total time required to executela program on a particular system.
  • Export – To save information from one computer or program to another.
  • Fax – It stands for ‘Facsimile machine’. It is used to transmit a copy of a document electronically.
  • Field – The attributes of an entity are written as fields in the table representation.
  • File A collection of information stored electronically and treated as a unit by a computer. Every file must have its own distinctive name
  • File Manager The file manager is an operating system utility that provides a user interface to work with file systems
  • File Server A computer on a network that stores the Programs and data files shared by the users of the
  • Firmware – Firmware is a technology which has the combination of both hardware and software .
  • Fax modem – A device built into or attached to a computer that serves as a facsimile machine and a modem.
  • Gigahertz (Ghz) – A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit.
  • Garbage In Garbage Out (GIGO) It pertains to the fact that most computer errors are not errors, they are data errors caused by incorrect input data.
  • Graphic Interchange Format (GIF) A simple file format for pictures and photographs, that are compressed so they can be sent quickly.
  • Graphical user Interface- A Graphical User Interface (or GUI) is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulating of graphical images and widgets in addition to text.
  • Glitch A hardware problem that causes a computer to malfunction or crash.
  • Hard copy – Text or graphics printed on paper; also called a printout.
  • Hard disk – A rigid type of magnetic medium that can store large amounts of information.
  • Hardware – The physical components of a computer.
  • serves as the entrance for a series of related pages.
  • Host computer – A computer that provides information or a service to other computers on the Internet.
  • Hacker A computer criminal who penetrates and tempers with computer programs or systems.
  • High-Level Programming Languages A high-level programming language is a
  • Instant messaging – A chat program that lets people communicate over the Internet in real time.
  • Integrated circuit – Multiple electronic components combined on a tiny silicon chip.
  • Interface – The electrical connection that links two pieces of equipment so that they can communicate with each other.
  • Intranet – A private network established by an organization for the exclusive use of its employees.
  • Icon – A symbol (such as picture or a folder) that represents a certain function on your computer
  • Information– Information is the summarization of data according to a certain pre-defined purpose
  • Input In order to give instructions to a computer, the information has to be supplied to it.
  • Instruction A command or order given to a computer to perform a task.
  • Instruction Cycle Fetching and decoding operations of the machine cycle.
  • Interface A device or program that helps a user to communicate with a computer.
  • Interpreter A program that converts and executes the source code into machine code line by line.
  • Integrated Circuits Multiple electronic components combined on a silicon chip.
  • Java – A programming language designed for programs or applets used over the Internet.
  • Justification – Aligning lines of text at the left margin, the right margin, both margins, or the center.
  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is an ISO/IEC group of experts that develops and maintains standards for a suite of compression algorithms for computer image files
  • Kernel It is the fundamental part of a program, such as an operating system, that resides in memory at all times.
  • Key Field A unique field in a record used to distinguish one record from another.
  • Label One or more characters used to Identify a statement and instruction or a data field in a computer program.
  • Landscape A printer feature, generally controlled by software, which rotates the output image by 90- to print across the length rather than the width of the paper.
  • Link A communication path between two nodes or channel.
  • Linux – A type of open source software. When combined with other components, Linux serves as an increasingly popular operating system that competes with Microsoft Windows.
  • Loop A sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly until a terminal condition occurs.
  • Megahertz (Mhz) – A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit.
  • Memory – The part of a computer that stores information.
  • Menu – A list of choices shown on the display screen.
  • Merge Combining two or more files into a single file.
  • Microprocessor A complete Central Processing Unit (CPU) contained on a single silicon chip.
  • MIDI Stands for Music Instrument Digital Interface. It allows a computer to store and replay a musical instrument’s output.
  • Minimize A term used in a GUI operating system that uses windows. It refers to reducing a window to an icon, or a label at the bottom of the screen, allowing another window to be viewed.
  • MIPS An acronym derived from Million of Instruction Per Second (MIPS) It is used to measure the speed of a processor.
  • Morphing The transformation of one image into another image.
  • MS-DOS An early operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft Disc Operating System).
  • Multitasking can simultaneously work with several programs or interrelated tasks that share memories, codes, buffers and files.
  • Multithreading It is a facility available in an operating system that allows multiple functions from the same application packages.
  • Multiuser The term describing the capability of a computer system to be operated at more than one terminal at the same llf 11°
  • Multiplexer It is a device That combines multiple input signals into an aggregate signal for transmission.
  • Notebook computer – A portable computer. Also known as a laptop computer.
  • Object – Refers to a particular instance of a class where the object can be a combination of variables, functions, and data structures.
  • Operating system (OS) – Software that manages the internal functions and controls the operations of a computer.
  • Open Source Software (OSS) – Free Open Source Software (FOSS), also called just Open Source or Free Software, is licensed to be free to use, modify, and distribute.
  • Optical character reader (OCR) -A device that can scan text from hard copy and enter it automatically into a computer for storage or editing. Also called an optical scanner.
  • Password – A user’s secret identification code, required to access stored material.
  • Patch – A patch is a piece of software designed to update a computer program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it.
  • Piracy – Unauthorized copying of some purchased software.
  • Pixel – The pixel is the basic unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image.
  • Port – It to the female part of connection. Computer ports have many uses, to connect a monitor, webcam, speakers, or other peripheral devices
  • Portrait – It is a mode in which the printer orients content for reading across the shorter length (the width) of the sheet of paper.
  • Plug-and-play – The ability to plug in a peripheral and have it work without difficulty.
  • Primary Key – A primary key is a field in a table which is unique and enables you to identify every record in that table
  • Program – An established sequence of instructions that tells a computer what to do. The term program means the same as software.
  • Pseudocode – Pseudocode is an artificial and informal language that helps programmers develop algorithms.
  • Push technology – A process that allows a user to obtain automatic delivery of specified information from the Internet to the user’s computer—for example, stock market quotes, weather forecasts, and sports scores.
  • Query – A query is a request for information from a database.
  • Queue – A queue is an example of a linear data structure, or more abstractly a sequential collection.
  • Record – A record (also called struct or compound data) is a basic data structure. A record is a collection of fields, possibly of different data types, typically in fixed number and sequence
  • Response time – The time a computer takes to execute a command.
  • Retrieve – To call up information from memory or storage so that it can be processed in some way.
  • Rich Text Format (RTF) – RTF is a file format that lets you exchange text files between different word processors in different operating systems.
  • Routing – Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks.
  • Scanner – A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display.
  • Scroll – To move information horizontally or vertically on a display screen so that one can see parts of a
  • Document that is too wide or too deep to fit entirely on one screen.
  • Search engine – A free program that helps Web users locate data by means of a keyword or concept.
  • Sector – A sector is a subdivision of a track on a magnetic disk or optical disc.
  • Server – A computer that delivers data to other computers (clients) linked on the same network.
  • Shareware – Software that usually may be downloaded and used initially without charge.
  • Socket – A network socket is an endpoint of a connection in a computer network.
  • Swapping – A process can be swapped temporarily out of memory to a backing store, and then brought back into memory for continued execution
  • Synchronisation – Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.
  • Telecommunications – The process of sending and receiving information by means of telephones, satellites, and other devices.
  • Teleconferencing – Conducting a conference by using computers, video, and telecommunications to
  • Telnet – A protocol that allows a computer to connect with a host computer on the Internet.
  • Template – Refers to a sample document that has already some details in place
  • Terminal – Any device that can transmit or receive electronic information.
  • Text – Broadly speaking, the material displayed on a screen or printed on paper.
  • Time Sharing or Multitasking – Time sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time.
  • Topology – Topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network.
  • Touchpad – The device on a laptop computer that takes the place of a mouse.
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) – A common standard for connecting multiple peripherals to a computer as needed.
  • Upload – Uploading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another, usually larger computer system
  • Utility – a utility is a small program that provides an addition to the capabilities provided by the operating system.
  • User-friendly – Describes hardware or software that is easy to use.
  • Webcam – A video camera that sends live images over the Internet to a Web site.
  • ZIP – ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression. A .ZIP file may contain one or more files or directories that may have been compressed
  • Zoom – zoom is another name for maximize, to enlarge the date size or image size

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