Computer Terminology: Full list

Computer terminology

Computer terminology is a very important part of every exam which constitutes Computer awareness.
It is very important to have knowledge about basic computer terminology.
Computer awareness which have computer terminology is a part of many banking and insurance exams like IBPS RRB PO, Clerk, IBPS SO, SBI, RBI etc.
You can easily score good marks by just remembering basic Computer Terminology.
So, here we are providing some important basic computer terminology which are asked in Computer Awareness section of Government exam.

  • Access – To call up information out of storage.
  • Access time – The amount of time it takes for requested information to be delivered from disks and memory.
  • Adapter – A circuit board that plugs into a computer and gives it additional capabilities.
  • Amplifier -A device that takes in a weak electric signal and sends out a strong one.
  • Analog Computer – A computer that operates on data which is in the form of continuous variable physical quantities.
  • Android – It is a linux based operating system designed Primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets computer.
  • Algorithm – A step-by-step procedure designed to solve a problem or achieve an objective.
  • Backup – Storage of duplicate files on disks, diskettes, or some other form of magnetic medium (such as tapes) as a safety measure in case the original medium is damaged or lost.
  • Basic Input Output System (BIOS) – Also known as ROM BIOS. It provides a abstraction layer for the hardware, i.e., a consistent way for application programs and operating system to interact with input/output devices.
  • Binary code – The language used by computers in which data and instructions are represented by a series of 1s and 0s.
  • Bug – A software bug is an error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system produces an incorrect or unexpected result.
  • Bus – A pathway along which electronic signals travel between the components of a computer system.
  • Binary numbering system – A numbering system in which all numbers are represented by various combinations of the digits 0 and 1.
  • Command – An instruction that causes a program or computer to perform a function.
  • Compiler -A compiler is a computer program that -translates a series of instructions written in one computer language (called the source language) into another computer language (also called the object or target language).
  • Communication The transrnission of data from one computer to another or from one device to another is called communication.
  • Computer Graphics- Computer Graphics are visual presentations on a computer screen. Examples are photographs, drawings, line arts, graphs, diagrams, typography numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings or other images.
  • Cold Boot When a computer restarts after the power cut is called cold boot
  • Control Panel – It is the part of Windows menu. accessible from the start menu, which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls, such as adding hardware. adding/removing software, controlling user accounts, changing accessibility options, etc.
  • Chat – A method of communication in which people type text messages to each other, thereby holding a conversation over a network such as the Internet.
  • Clipboard – A holding area in memory where information that has been copied or cut (text, graphics, sound, or video) can be stored until the information is inserted elsewhere.
  • Cookie – A packet of information that travels between a browser and the web server.
  • Crash A malfunction in hardware or software that keeps a computer from functioning.
  • Crawler – It is an Internet bot which systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing (web spidering).
  • Data – Information consisting of letters, numbers, symbols, sound, or images—in a form that can be processed by a computer.
  • Database – A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.
  • Data abstraction – It is the reduction of a particular body of data to a simplified representation of the whole.
  • Data processing – It refers to the process of collecting and manipulating raw data to yield useful information.
  • Disk Operating System (DOS) – A disk operating system (abbreviated DOS) is a computer operating system that can use a disk storage device, such as a floppy disk, hard disk drive, or optical disc.
  • Debugging – Locating and eliminating defects in a program.
  • Delete – A command to erase information in storage.
  • Directory – A list of the files stored on a disk.
  • Dots Per Inch (DPI) It is defined as the measure of the resolution of a printer, scanner or monitor
  • Download –A copy (data) from one computer system to another, typically over the Internet.
  • Editing – The process of changing information by inserting, deleting, replacing, rearranging, and reformatting.
  • EDO (Extended Data Output) RAM is a type of random access memory (RAM) chip that improves the time to read from memory on faster microprocessors such as the Intel Pentium.
  • Ethernet Card – A network adapter that enables a computer to connect to an ethernet.
  • Execution Time The total time required to executela program on a particular system.
  • Export – To save information from one computer or program to another.
  • Fax – It stands for ‘Facsimile machine’. It is used to transmit a copy of a document electronically.
  • Field – The attributes of an entity are written as fields in the table representation.
  • File A collection of information stored electronically and treated as a unit by a computer. Every file must have its own distinctive name
  • File Manager The file manager is an operating system utility that provides a user interface to work with file systems
  • File Server A computer on a network that stores the Programs and data files shared by the users of the
  • Firmware – Firmware is a technology which has the combination of both hardware and software .
  • Fax modem – A device built into or attached to a computer that serves as a facsimile machine and a modem.
  • Gigahertz (Ghz) – A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit.
  • Garbage In Garbage Out (GIGO) It pertains to the fact that most computer errors are not errors, they are data errors caused by incorrect input data.
  • Graphic Interchange Format (GIF) A simple file format for pictures and photographs, that are compressed so they can be sent quickly.
  • Graphical user Interface- A Graphical User Interface (or GUI) is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulating of graphical images and widgets in addition to text.
  • Glitch A hardware problem that causes a computer to malfunction or crash.
  • Hard copy – Text or graphics printed on paper; also called a printout.
  • Hard disk – A rigid type of magnetic medium that can store large amounts of information.
  • Hardware – The physical components of a computer.
  • serves as the entrance for a series of related pages.
  • Host computer – A computer that provides information or a service to other computers on the Internet.
  • Hacker A computer criminal who penetrates and tempers with computer programs or systems.
  • High-Level Programming Languages A high-level programming language is a
  • Instant messaging – A chat program that lets people communicate over the Internet in real time.
  • Integrated circuit – Multiple electronic components combined on a tiny silicon chip.
  • Interface – The electrical connection that links two pieces of equipment so that they can communicate with each other.
  • Intranet – A private network established by an organization for the exclusive use of its employees.
  • Icon – A symbol (such as picture or a folder) that represents a certain function on your computer
  • Information– Information is the summarization of data according to a certain pre-defined purpose
  • Input In order to give instructions to a computer, the information has to be supplied to it.
  • Instruction A command or order given to a computer to perform a task.
  • Instruction Cycle Fetching and decoding operations of the machine cycle.
  • Interface A device or program that helps a user to communicate with a computer.
  • Interpreter A program that converts and executes the source code into machine code line by line.
  • Integrated Circuits Multiple electronic components combined on a silicon chip.
  • Java – A programming language designed for programs or applets used over the Internet.
  • Justification – Aligning lines of text at the left margin, the right margin, both margins, or the center.
  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is an ISO/IEC group of experts that develops and maintains standards for a suite of compression algorithms for computer image files
  • Kernel It is the fundamental part of a program, such as an operating system, that resides in memory at all times.
  • Key Field A unique field in a record used to distinguish one record from another.
  • Label One or more characters used to Identify a statement and instruction or a data field in a computer program.
  • Landscape A printer feature, generally controlled by software, which rotates the output image by 90- to print across the length rather than the width of the paper.
  • Link A communication path between two nodes or channel.
  • Linux – A type of open source software. When combined with other components, Linux serves as an increasingly popular operating system that competes with Microsoft Windows.
  • Loop A sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly until a terminal condition occurs.
  • Megahertz (Mhz) – A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit.
  • Memory – The part of a computer that stores information.
  • Menu – A list of choices shown on the display screen.
  • Merge Combining two or more files into a single file.
  • Microprocessor A complete Central Processing Unit (CPU) contained on a single silicon chip.
  • MIDI Stands for Music Instrument Digital Interface. It allows a computer to store and replay a musical instrument’s output.
  • Minimize A term used in a GUI operating system that uses windows. It refers to reducing a window to an icon, or a label at the bottom of the screen, allowing another window to be viewed.
  • MIPS An acronym derived from Million of Instruction Per Second (MIPS) It is used to measure the speed of a processor.
  • Morphing The transformation of one image into another image.
  • MS-DOS An early operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft Disc Operating System).
  • Multitasking can simultaneously work with several programs or interrelated tasks that share memories, codes, buffers and files.
  • Multithreading It is a facility available in an operating system that allows multiple functions from the same application packages.
  • Multiuser The term describing the capability of a computer system to be operated at more than one terminal at the same llf 11°
  • Multiplexer It is a device That combines multiple input signals into an aggregate signal for transmission.
  • Notebook computer – A portable computer. Also known as a laptop computer.
  • Object – Refers to a particular instance of a class where the object can be a combination of variables, functions, and data structures.
  • Operating system (OS) – Software that manages the internal functions and controls the operations of a computer.
  • Open Source Software (OSS) – Free Open Source Software (FOSS), also called just Open Source or Free Software, is licensed to be free to use, modify, and distribute.
  • Optical character reader (OCR) -A device that can scan text from hard copy and enter it automatically into a computer for storage or editing. Also called an optical scanner.
  • Password – A user’s secret identification code, required to access stored material.
  • Patch – A patch is a piece of software designed to update a computer program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it.
  • Piracy – Unauthorized copying of some purchased software.
  • Pixel – The pixel is the basic unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image.
  • Port – It to the female part of connection. Computer ports have many uses, to connect a monitor, webcam, speakers, or other peripheral devices
  • Portrait – It is a mode in which the printer orients content for reading across the shorter length (the width) of the sheet of paper.
  • Plug-and-play – The ability to plug in a peripheral and have it work without difficulty.
  • Primary Key – A primary key is a field in a table which is unique and enables you to identify every record in that table
  • Program – An established sequence of instructions that tells a computer what to do. The term program means the same as software.
  • Pseudocode – Pseudocode is an artificial and informal language that helps programmers develop algorithms.
  • Push technology – A process that allows a user to obtain automatic delivery of specified information from the Internet to the user’s computer—for example, stock market quotes, weather forecasts, and sports scores.
  • Query – A query is a request for information from a database.
  • Queue – A queue is an example of a linear data structure, or more abstractly a sequential collection.
  • Record – A record (also called struct or compound data) is a basic data structure. A record is a collection of fields, possibly of different data types, typically in fixed number and sequence
  • Response time – The time a computer takes to execute a command.
  • Retrieve – To call up information from memory or storage so that it can be processed in some way.
  • Rich Text Format (RTF) – RTF is a file format that lets you exchange text files between different word processors in different operating systems.
  • Routing – Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks.
  • Scanner – A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display.
  • Scroll – To move information horizontally or vertically on a display screen so that one can see parts of a
  • Document that is too wide or too deep to fit entirely on one screen.
  • Search engine – A free program that helps Web users locate data by means of a keyword or concept.
  • Sector – A sector is a subdivision of a track on a magnetic disk or optical disc.
  • Server – A computer that delivers data to other computers (clients) linked on the same network.
  • Shareware – Software that usually may be downloaded and used initially without charge.
  • Socket – A network socket is an endpoint of a connection in a computer network.
  • Swapping – A process can be swapped temporarily out of memory to a backing store, and then brought back into memory for continued execution
  • Synchronisation – Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.
  • Telecommunications – The process of sending and receiving information by means of telephones, satellites, and other devices.
  • Teleconferencing – Conducting a conference by using computers, video, and telecommunications to
  • Telnet – A protocol that allows a computer to connect with a host computer on the Internet.
  • Template – Refers to a sample document that has already some details in place
  • Terminal – Any device that can transmit or receive electronic information.
  • Text – Broadly speaking, the material displayed on a screen or printed on paper.
  • Time Sharing or Multitasking – Time sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time.
  • Topology – Topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network.
  • Touchpad – The device on a laptop computer that takes the place of a mouse.
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) – A common standard for connecting multiple peripherals to a computer as needed.
  • Upload – Uploading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another, usually larger computer system
  • Utility – a utility is a small program that provides an addition to the capabilities provided by the operating system.
  • User-friendly – Describes hardware or software that is easy to use.
  • Webcam – A video camera that sends live images over the Internet to a Web site.
  • ZIP – ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression. A .ZIP file may contain one or more files or directories that may have been compressed
  • Zoom – zoom is another name for maximize, to enlarge the date size or image size

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