English Quiz for RBI ASSISTANT MAINS
Improve your English with English quiz. English Quiz to help you improve your score for exams like Bank, SSC, Railway, UPSC, UPSSSC, CDS, UPTET, KVS, DSSSB and other Government exams.
Directions (1-8): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them, while answering some of the questions.
There are important differences in the situation models constructed for narrative and expository texts. A situation model for a narrative text is likely to refer to the characters in it and their emotional states, the setting, the action and sequence of events. A situation model for a scientific text, on the other hand, is likely to concentrate on the components of a system and their relationships, the events and processes that occur during the working of the system and the uses of the system. Moreover, scientific discourse is rooted in an understanding of cause and effect that differs from our everyday understanding. Our everyday understanding which is reflected in narrative text sees cause and effect in terms of goal structures. This is indeed the root of our superstitious behaviour – we (not necessarily consciously) attribute purposefulness to almost everything! But this approach is something we have to learn not to apply to scientific problems (and it requires a lot of learning). This is worth emphasising: science texts assume a different way of explaining events from the way we are accustomed to use – a way that must be learned.
In general, narrative text (and ‘ordinary’ thinking) is associated with goal structures and scientific text with logical structures. However, it’s not quite as clear-cut a distinction as all that. While the physical sciences certainly focus on logical structure, both the biological sciences and technology often use goal structures to frame their discussions. Nevertheless, as a generalisation, we may say that logical thinking informs experts in these areas, while goal structures are what novices focus on. This is consistent with another intriguing finding.
In a comparison of two types of texts – one discussing human technology and other discussing forces of nature, it was found that technological texts were more easily processed and remembered. Indications were that different situation models were constructed — a goal-oriented representation for the technological text and a causal chain representation for the force of nature text. The evidence also suggested that people found it much easier to make inferences (whether about agents or objects) when human agents were involved. Having objects as the grammatical subject was clearly more difficult to process.
There are several reasons why goal-oriented, human-focused discourse might be more easily processed (understood, remembered) than texts describing inanimate objects linked in a cause-effect chain and they come down to the degree of similarity to narrative. As a rule of thumb, we may say that to the degree that scientific text resembles a story, the more easily it will be processed. Inference making is crucial to comprehension and the construction of a situation, because a text never explains every single word and detail, every logical or causal connection.
In the same way that narrative and expository texts have different situation models, they also involve a different pattern of inference making, e.g. Narratives involve a lot of predictive inferences, expository texts typically involve a lot of backward inferences. The number of inferences required may also vary.
A study found that readers made nine times as many inferences in stories as they did in expository texts. This may be because there are more inferences required in narratives. Narratives involve the richly complex world of human beings, as opposed to some rigidly specified aspect of it, described according to a strict protocol. But it may also reflect the fact that readers don’t make all (or indeed, anywhere near) the inferences needed in expository text. And indeed, the evidence indicates that students are poor at noticing coherence gaps (which require inferences).
Q1. Which of these statements is not associated with the ‘situation models’?
(a) Situation model refers to characters and their emotional states
(b) Situation model refers to the setting, the action and the sequence of events
(c) Situation model concentrates on the components of a system and their relationships
(d) It does not show the events and processes that occur during the working of a system
(e) None of the above
Q2. In the comparison of two types of texts-one discussing human technology and the other discussing forces of nature, which is the best statement to support the view?
(a) Logical thinking informs experts
(b) Goal-structured thinking may be done by the novices even
(c) Technological texts are processed easily and remembered
(d) Force of nature needs a causal chain
(e) None of the above
Q3. Which is the most optimal reason for easy processing of the scientific text?
(a) Scientific text deals with the phenomenon that are general to the normal course of life
(b) Scientific text when resembles with that of a story then it procures lot more sense to the processing
(c) Scientific texts involve a different pattern of inference making which is possessed by the experts only
(d) Predictive and backward inferences make the scientific text more processed
(e) None of the above
Q4. How does inference affect the processing of scientific text?
(a) Inference gives the readers an idea of the rich and complex human world
(b) It lets the readers away from the definite protocol of an expository text
(c) Inference arms you with the understanding of coherency
(d) All of the above
(e) None of the above
Directions (5 -6): Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (7 – 8): Choose the word which is opposite in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (9–11) : In each question, four different ways of presenting an idea are given. Choose the one that conforms most closely to standard English usage. If none of the given options is correct, choose option (e) as an answer.
Q9. (a) Despite the vigorous efforts of the U.S. Secretary of State to seek to bring peace between Israelis and Palestinians in a new effort to resolving an existential problem, American political compulsions are unlikely to lead to anything but a make-believe truce.
(b) Despite the vigorous efforts of the U.S. Secretary of State to seek to bring peace among Israelis and Palestinians in a new effort at resolving an existential problem, American political compulsions are unlikely to lead to anything but make-believe truce.
(c) Despite vigorous efforts of the U.S. Secretary of State to seek to bring peace between Israelis and Palestinians in a new effort to resolve an existential problem, American political compulsions are unlikely to lead to anything but make-believe truce.
(d) Despite the vigorous efforts of the U.S Secretary of State to seek to bring peace between Israelis and Palestinians in a new effort at resolving an existential problem, American political compulsions are unlikely to lead to anything but a make-believe truce.
(e)None of these
Q10. (a) Of all the various genres that inhabit the literary world, not one has captured readers’ imagination so much as the ‘whodunit’ murder mystery.
(b) Of all the various genres that inhabit the literary world, not one has captured readers’ imagination as much as the ‘whodunit’ murder mystery.
(c) Of all the various genres that inhabit the literary world, not one have captured readers’ imagination so much as the ‘whodunit’ murder mystery.
(d) Of all the various genres that inhabit the literary world, not one has captured readers’ imagination as much as the ‘whodunit’ murder mystery did.
(e)None of these
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