Here we are providing the short notes on History which will be help to crack General Awareness part in may examinations like SSC, Railway and other competitive exams.
Important Governor Generals of India
Robert Clive (1757-60 & 1765-67):-
- Governor of Bengal during this period.
- Started dual Government in Bengal in 1765.
- He was a British officer who established the military & political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal.
- The foundations of the British empire in India were, it is said, laid by Robert Clive, known to his admirers as the “conqueror of India”.
- Clive defeated the Nawab of Bengal Shiraj-ud-daula in the famous Battle of Plassey in 1757.
- Clive first arrived in India in 1743 as a civil servant of the East India Company; he later transferred to the military service of the Company & returned to England in 1753.
- On 22 November 1774 Clive committed suicide, aged forty-nine, at hisBerkeley Square home in London.
Warren Hastings (1772-74)
- He Abolished Dual Government started by Robert Clive in 1772.
- Introduced quintessential settlement of land revenue in 1772.
- Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal with the help of William Jones in 1784.
- After his return to England in 1785, Impeachment proceeding were initiated against him in the house of Lord.
- The first Governor-General of Bengal was Warren Hastings.
- Rohila War in 1774, First Anglo-Maratha War (1776-82) & Second Anglo-Mysore War from 1780-84.
Lord Cornwallis (1786-93)
- First Person to codify Laws in 1793. The code separated the revenue administration from the administration of Justice. Created the post of District Judge.
- Introduced the Permanent settlement in 1793.
- Cornwallis called “Father of Civil Service in India”.
- He also led the British forces in the third Anglo-Mysore war & defeated the Great Tipu Sultan, ruler of Mysore.
- In 1793, He returned to England to receive the title of the Marques. & was granted seat in the Privy Council & died in 1805.
Lord Wellesley (1793-1798)
- Described himself as “Bengal Tiger”
- Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance.
- Madras Presidency was formed during his period.
- Signed the Treaty of Bassien & fought Second Anglo- Maratha war.
Lord Hastings (1813-1823)
- Introduction of Ryotwari settlement in Madras Presidency by Governor Thomas Munro in 1820.
- Adopted the Policy of intervention & War.
- Mahalwari (Village Community) system of Land Revenue was made in North West Province by James Thomson.
Lord William Bentick (1828-1835)
- First Governor General of India by Government of India Act 1833.
- Most Liberal & Enlightened Governor General of India & regarded as the “Father of Modern Western Education in India”.
- Banned practiced of Sati in 1829. & banned female infanticide.
- He made the English the court Language in higher court but Persian continued in Lower court.
- Abolished Court of Appeals & Circuit set up by the Cornwallis.
- Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835-36) called Liberator of Press.
Lord Dalhousie (1849-1856)
- Lord Dalhousie introduced the Policy of Doctrine of Lapse captured Satara in 1848, Jaitpur & Sambhalpur in 1849. Baghat in 1850, Udaipur in 1852, Jhansi in 1853, & Nagpur in 1854.
- Introduced Wood’s Dispatch known as Magna Carta of English Education in India prepared by Charles Wood. It suggested a scheme of education from Primary to University level.
- He laid the first Railway Line in 1853 from Bombay to Thane & second from Calcutta to Raniganj.
- Gave a great impetus to Post & Telegraph. Telegraph lines were first laid from Calcutta to Agra.
- Hindu Marriage Act passed in 1856.
- A Post office Act was passed in 1854. Postage stamp were issued for the first time.
- He was the youngest Governor General of India. He assumed charge at age of 36.
- An Engineering Collage at Roorkee was established.
- A separate Public Works Department was setup for the first time, Started work on Grand Trunk Road & developed the Harbours at Karachi, Bombay, & Calcutta.
Lord Canning (1856-62)
He was the first last Governor General of India & First Viceroy of India.
- Revolt of 1857.
- Queen Victoria’s Proclamation & passing the Indian council act of 1858.
- Doctrine of Lapse which was started by Lord Dalhousie was withdrawn in 1859.
- Foundation of the Universities in Calcutta, Bombay, & Madras in 1857.
- Indigo Revolt in Bengal in 1859-60.
- Bahadur Shah was sent to Rangoon.
- IPC & Cr.PC was enacted.
- Income Tax was introduced for the first time in 1858.
- Indian High Court act 1861 was enacted.