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Human Development Index: India-132
The United Nations Development Programme has released the Human Development Report 2021-22. According to this report India has been placed on 132 among 191 countries. It is the first time in around three decades that India has faced a decline in its score over two consecutive years. It has happened due to COVID pandemic which forced around 90 percent of countries to fall backward in the human development index.
Brief about human development index:
The human development index is the important part of the United Nations Development Programme’s report named Human Development Report. It gauges the overall parameters of human’s development in the responsible countries and it is measured by the three basis dimensions:
- Long and healthy life
- Decent standard of living
Based on the above mentioned dimensions,the report is developed to show average achievement of a country in the terms of human development.
There are also four indicators to measure the rank of every country in this report. These indicators are given below:
- Life expectancy at birth
- Mean years of schooling
- Expected years of schooling
- Gross national income per capita
Due to the crises across the world during COVID pandemic and the ongoing war between Ukraine and Russia which has halted the speed of economy not only of these two countries but also of the entire world, making the speed of human development slower has not been done in the last 32 years. A total 90 percent of countries such as 9 countries out of every 10 countries have shown a decline in the development index. This is the great impact of COVID and that devastated war.
A significant decline has also shown in the life expectancy such as 72.8 years in 2019 and 71.4 years in 2021. The human development index score of India is 0.633 in 2021 as compared to 0.645 in 2018. It shows a downward trend in the human development of the country. The life expectancy in India has fallen to 67.2 years in 2021 from 70.7 years in 2018. Further the expected years of schooling in India is 11.9 years and the mean years of schooling is 6.7 years according to the report. The final and last indicator, the GNI per capita in India , is 6,590 USD.
The COVID pandemic and the ongoing war also have made the situation worse in terms of gender inequality. Whereas the gender inequality in the world has increased to 6.7 percent but in India there is a slight improvement. In India the gender inequality is 0.490 in 2021 in comparison to 0.493 in 2020. There are also three dimensions for measuring development between men and women. These dimensions are:
- Reproductive health
- Labour market
The COVID pandemic and the war between Ukraine and Russia are the major factors for the decline in human development across the world. It also exacerbated the situation of human rights around the World.
Questions And Answers:
Q2. Who has released the human development index?
Ans. The United Nations Development Programme.
Q2. What is India’s rank in the human development index?
Q3. What is India’s score in the human development index?