Here we are providing the short notes on Polity which will be help to crack General Awareness part in may examinations like SSC, Railway and other competitive exams.
Framing of the Constitution:
- The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly which was set up under the Cabinet mission plan (1946).
- The Constituent Assembly took almost 3 years (2 years, 11 months, & 18 days) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for an Independent India.
- During this period it held 11 sessions covering a total of 165 days. Of these, 114 days were spent on the consideration of & discussion on the Draft Constitution.
- As for the composition of the Assembly, members were chosen by indirect election by the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies, following the scheme recommended by the Cabinet Mission. The total membership of the assembly thus was to be 389.
- However, as a result of the partition, a separate Constituent Assembly was set up for Pakistan & representatives of some provinces ceased to be members of the Assembly. As a result, the membership of the Assembly was reduced to 299.
The Cabinet Mission
World War II in Europe came to an end on May 9,1945. Three British cabinet ministers were sent to find a solution to the question of India’s independence. This team of ministers (Lord Pethick Lawrence, Stafford Cripps, A V Alexander) was called the Cabinet Mission. The Mission was in India from March 1946 to May 1946.The Cabinet Mission discussed the framework of the constitution & laid down in some detail the procedure to be followed by the constitution drafting body. The Assembly began work on 9 December 1946.
First Interim National Govt.
The Govt. was constituted on 2 September, 1946. It was leaded by Pandit Nehru. All the members of the interim Govt. were members of Viceroy’s Executive Council. The Viceroy continued to be the head of the Council. Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru was designated as the Vice-President of the Council.
The Constituent Assembly
- The people of India elected members of the provincial assemblies, who in turn elected the constituent assembly.
- Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community.
- Sachidanand Sinha was the first president of the Constitituent Assembly. Later, Dr.Rajendra Prasad was elected president of the Constituent Assembly while B.R. Ambedkar was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
Sources of our Constitution
The Indian Constitution is borrowed from almost all the major countries of the world but has its own unique features too. Major sources are:
- Government of India Act of 1935 – Federal Scheme, Office of Governor, Judiciary, Public Service Commission, Emergency provisions & administrative details.
- British Constitution – Parliamentary System, Rule of law, Lagislative Procedure, Single Citizenship, Cabinet System, Prerogative Writs, Parliamentary Privileges & Bicameralism.
- US Constitution – Fundamental rights, independence of judiciary, judicial review, impeachment of president, removal of Supreme court & high court judges & post of vice president.
- Irish Constitution- Directive Principles of State Policy, nomination of members of Rajya Sabha & method of election of president
- Canadian Constitution- Federation with a strong centre, vesting of residuary power in the centre, appointment of state Governor by the centre & advisory jurisdiction of Supreme Court.
- Australian Constitution- Concurrent list, joint sitting of two houses of Parliament, Freedom of trade & commerce & intercause.
- Constitution of Germany- Suspension of fundamental rights during emergency.
- French Constitution- Republic & ideals of liberty, equality & fraternity in the Preamble.
- South African Constitution- Procedure for amendment of the constitution & election of members of Rajya Sabha.
- Japanese Constitution- Procedure established by Law.
- Constitution of former USSR: Procedure of five-year plan, fundamental duties, ideals of justice (social, economic & political) in Preamble.
PARTS DESCRIBED IN THE CONSTITUTION
|Part I||The Union and its territory||Art. 1 to 4|
|Part II||Citizenship||Art. 5 to 11|
|Part III||Fundamental Rights||Art. 12 to 35|
|Part IV||Directive Principles||Art. 36 to 51|
|Part IVA||Fundamental Duties||Art. 51A|
|Part V||The Union||Art. 52 to 151|
|Part VI||The States||Art. 152 to 237|
|Part VII||Repealed by Const. (7th Amendment) Act, 1956|
|Part VIII||The Union Territories||Art. 239 to 242|
|Part IX||The Panchayats||Art. 243 to 243O|
|Part IXA||The Muncipalities||Art. 243P to 243ZG|
|Part IXB||The Co-operative Societies||Art. 243ZH to 243ZT|
|Part X||The Scheduled and Tribal Areas||Art. 244 to 244A|
|Part XI||Relations between the Union and the States||Art. 245 to 263|
|Part XII||Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits||Art. 264 to 300A|
|Part XIII||Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the Territory of India||Art. 301 to 307|
|Part XIV||Services under the Union and the States||Art. 308 to 323|
|Part XIVA||Tribunals||Art. 323A to 323B|
|Part XV||Elections||Art. 324 to 329A|
|Part XVI||Special provisions relating to certain classes||Art. 330 to 342|
|Part XVII||Official Language||Art. 343 to 351|
|Part XVIII||Emergency Provisions||Art. 352 to 360|
|Part XIX||Miscellaneous||Art. 361 to 367|
|Part XX||Amendment of the Constitution||Art. 368|
|Part XXI||Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions||Art. 369 to 392|
|Part XXII||Short title, commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals||Art. 393 to 395|