English Quiz (RC) 15th September 2018

Directions (1 to 10): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/ phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Hunger is about people. It is also about oppression and inequalities. Hunger is about corrupt politicians and corrupt bureaucracy; it is also about power and powerlessness. Hunger is about borrowed ideas of science and technology and development which have not worked in local realities; it is also about the disintegration of local communities; about loss of values, traditions; culture and spirituality. Ending hunger is the important unfinished agenda of this century and of independent India.

The world as a whole has achieved dramatic increase in food production, enough to cover the minimum needs of the global population. Yet hunger and malnutrition persist in alarming measure in India and other Third World countries. The World Bank’s estimates are that over a billion people in the world have problems of food security. The Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) estimates point out that 64 developing countries out of 117 will be unable to feed their population adequately and that 38 out of these developing countries will be able to feed less than half of their populations adequately.

India believes that its problems of hunger and food security are almost over because of the significant increase in productivity achieved through the use of new technologies of the Green Revolution. Food grains per capita increased from 395 grams in 1951 to 466d grams in 1993. There are reports about surplus stocks used for exports; also reports about surplus stocks rotting because there are not enough storing facilities. And yet in such a situation, we have millions who go hungry and who die a silent death of starvation and malnutrition. In 1974 the FAO organised the first World Food Conference, where its members took a pledge to end hunger by 1984. Henry Kissinger, then US Secretary of State vowed at the meeting that “within a decade, no man, woman or child will go to bed hungry.” A quarter of a century later more people are dying of hunger.

FAO organised its second World Food security Conference in 1985 which reaffirmed its moral commitment “to achieve the objective of ensuring that all people at all times are in a position to produce the basic food they need.” In 1996, yet again, FAO organised its third global conference on food security with much fanfare. The result of this third summit meeting was another declaration, called the Rome Declaration, affirming once again the right of everyone to be free of hunger. The summit also offered an action plan to reduce the numbers of hungry people by half within two decades – a more modest commitment than made by Kissinger a quarter of a century ago.

In spite of the three global conferences, the future of food security looks as bleak as ever. Fidel Castro, who was also attending the third FAO summit meeting, pointed out, “Hunger is the off-spring of injustice and the unequal distribution of the wealth of his world. Social and economic surplus have actually marginalised the poor and deprived them of the means to eat”.

The NGOs and people’s representatives who had also gathered for this summit meeting said in their final declaration, “Ensuring food security demands an approach to agriculture policy that is in almost every respect the reverse of that adopted by the Summit’s delegates.” They suggested that instead of pursuing policies that encourage corporate agriculture, there should be policies in laboured organic production, reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides and other agro-chemicals. And instead of hooking farmers into a global economy over which they have no control, they suggested that resources be shifted in favour of local farming and regional food producers and food systems.

Q1. According to the World Bank, how many people face problems of food scarcity?

(a) 2million

(b) 100 million

(c) 500 million

(d) 1000 million

(e) None of the above

Q2. What had led India to believe that it does not face any food crisis?

(a) The presence of surplus stocks of exports

(b) Reports about surplus stocks rotting

(c) The apparent success of the Green Revolution

(d) Both (a) and (c)

(e) None of the above

Q3. Why did the third FAO summit moderate the pledge made by Kissinger in the first summit?

(a) Because Kissinger’s promise was too ambitious.

(b) Because in reality, it is never possible to eliminate hunger and poverty from the world.

(c) Because Kissinger’s promise had started to look unattainable as more and more people were dying out of hunger.

(d) Because FAO’s resources to eliminate poverty were limited.

(e) None of the above

Q4. What is the major point in the NGO’s stand after the third FAO summit?

(a) The agriculture policy adopted by the Summit’s delegate will never lead to food security.

(b) Farmers should be provided security first to achieve food security for the world.

(c) Local farming should be encouraged more

(d) Change pattern of agriculture from corporate agriculture to policies that favour the farmer.

(e) None of the above

Q5. All the following are instances of commercial agriculture EXCEPT

(a) usage of pesticides

(b) usage of agrochemicals

(c) inorganic production

(d) regional food producers and food systems

(e) None of the above

Q6. What is the basic paradox of India’s food system?

(a) That in spite of being a Third World country, it has enough food surplus.

(b) That in spite of food surplus, several people die annually.

(c) That in spite of large-scale food production, the farmers are all poor.

(d) Both (b) and (c)

(e) None of the above

Q7. What, according to the author, is the basic cause of hunger?

(a) Faulty agricultural policy

(b) Lack of purchasing power

(c) Faulty governmental policies

(d) Inequality and powerlessness

(e) None of the above

Q8. The author says all the following EXCEPT

(a) per capita availability of food grains has increased from 1951 to 1993 in India.

(b) FAO’s promises in its summits have mostly gone unfulfilled.

(c) Fidel Castro is a communist leader.

(d) hunger and malnutrition constitute a serious impending crisis to the world.

(e) None of the above

Q9. The author definitely says which of the following in the context of the passage?

(a) Hunger is caused, at least in part, due to implementation of borrowed scientific ideas.

(b) Several Third World countries are in the process of eliminating hunger.

(c) Green Revolution was based on borrowed technology.

(d) As of now, there seems to be a new direction to acquire food security.

(e) None of the above

Q10. How does the author corroborate the third sentence of the passage?

(a) By pointing to inadequacies of the policies of the government

(b) By pointing to the failed promises of FAO

(c) By pointing to the words of Fidel Castro

(d) By pointing to the resolution adopted by the NGOs

(e) None of the above

Solution

  1. Ans.(d)
    Refer to the third sentence of the second paragraph, “The World Bank’s estimates are that over a billion people in the world have problems of food security.” Hence option (d) is correct.
  2. Ans.(c)

Refer the first sentence of the third paragraph, “India believes that its problems of hunger and food security are almost over because of the significant increase in productivity achieved through the use of new technologies of the Green Revolution.” Hence option (c) is true.

  1. Ans.(c)

Refer the last sentence of the fourth paragraph, “The summit also offered an action plan to reduce the numbers of hungry people by half within two decades – a more modest commitment than made by Kissinger a quarter of a century ago. ” Hence option (c) is true.

  1. Ans.(d)

Refer the last two sentences of the passage, “They suggested that instead of pursuing policies that encourage corporate agriculture, …………………..they suggested that resources be shifted in favour of local farming and regional food producers and food systems.” Hence option (d) is true.

  1. Ans.(d)

Sol. Refer the second last sentence of the passage, “They suggested that instead of pursuing policies that encourage corporate agriculture, there should be policies in laboured organic production, reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides and other agro-chemicals.” Hence option (d) is true.

  1. Ans.(b)

Refer to the third sentence of the third paragraph, “There are reports about surplus stocks used for exports; also reports about surplus stocks rotting because there are not enough storing facilities. And yet in such a situation, we have millions who go hungry and who die a silent death of starvation and malnutrition.” Hence option (b) is true.

  1. Ans.(d)

Refer the second sentence of the fifth paragraph, “Hunger is the off-spring of injustice and the unequal distribution of the wealth of his world. Social and economic surplus have actually marginalised the poor and deprived them of the means to eat” Hence option (d) is correct.

  1. Ans.(c)

Refer to the fifth paragraph, “In spite of the three global conferences, the future of food security looks as bleak as ever. Fidel Castro, who was also attending the third FAO summit meeting, pointed out, “Hunger is the off-spring of injustice and the unequal distribution of the wealth of his world. Social and economic surplus have actually marginalised the poor and deprived them of the means to eat”. ” Hence option (c) is true.

  1. Ans.(a)

Refer the third sentence of the passage, “Hunger is about borrowed ideas of science and technology and development which have not worked in local realities; it is also about the disintegration of local communities; about loss of values, traditions; culture and spirituality.” Hence option (a) is true.

  1. Ans.(d)

Refer to the last paragraph, “The NGOs and people’s representatives who had also gathered for this summit meeting said in their final declaration, “Ensuring food security demands an approach to agriculture policy that is in almost every respect the reverse of that adopted by the Summit’s delegates.” They suggested that instead of pursuing policies that encourage corporate agriculture, there should be policies in laboured organic production, reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides and other agro-chemicals.” Hence option (d) is true.

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