IBPS Clerk English Language Quiz
English Language is a part of almost all major competitive exams in the country and is perhaps the most scoring section also. Aspirants who regularly practice questions have a good chance of scoring well in the English Language Section. So here we are providing you with the IBPS Clerk English Language Quiz to help you prepare better. This IBPS Clerk English Language Quiz includes all of the most recent pattern-based questions, as well as Previous Year Questions. This IBPS Clerk English Language Quiz is available to you at no cost. Candidates will be provided with a detailed explanation of each question in this IBPS Clerk English Language Quiz. Candidates must practice this IBPS Clerk English Language Quiz to achieve a good score in the English Language Section.
Directions (1-5); Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The problem with science is that so much of it simply isn’t. Last summer, the Open Science Collaboration announced that it had tried to replicate one hundred published psychology experiments sampled from three of the most prestigious journals in the field. Scientific claims rest on the idea that experiments repeated under nearly identical conditions ought to yield approximately the same results, but until very recently, very few had bothered to check in a systematic way whether this was actually the case. The OSC was the biggest attempt yet to check a field’s results, and the most shocking. In many cases, they had used original experimental materials, and sometimes even performed the experiments under the guidance of the original researchers. Of the studies that had originally reported positive results, an astonishing 65 percent failed to show statistical significance on replication, and many of the remainder showed greatly reduced effect sizes.
Their findings made the news, and quickly became a club with which to bash the social sciences. But the problem isn’t just with psychology. There’s an ¬unspoken rule in the pharmaceutical industry that half of all academic biomedical research will ultimately prove false, and in 2011 a group of researchers at Bayer decided to test it. Looking at sixty-seven recent drug discovery projects based on preclinical cancer biology research, they found that in more than 75 percent of cases the published data did not match up with their in-house attempts to replicate. These were not studies published in fly-by-night oncology journals, but blockbuster research featured in I, and the like. The Bayer researchers were drowning in bad studies, and it was to this, in part, that they attributed the mysteriously declining yields of drug pipelines. Perhaps so many of these new drugs fail to have an effect because the basic research on which their development was based isn’t valid.
When a study fails to replicate, there are two possible interpretations. The first is that, unbeknownst to the investigators, there was a real difference in experimental setup between the original investigation and the failed replication. These are colloquially referred to as “wallpaper effects,” the joke being that the experiment was affected by the color of the wallpaper in the room. This is the happiest possible explanation for failure to reproduce: It means that both experiments have revealed facts about the universe, and we now have the opportunity to learn what the difference was between them and to incorporate a new and subtler distinction into our theories. The other interpretation is that the original finding was false. Unfortunately, an ingenious statistical argument shows that this second interpretation is far more likely. First articulated by John Ioannidis, a professor at Stanford University’s School of Medicine, this argument proceeds by a simple application of Bayesian statistics. Suppose that there are a hundred and one stones in a certain field. One of them has a diamond inside it, and, luckily, you have a diamond-detecting device that advertises 99 percent accuracy. After an hour or so of moving the device around, examining each stone in turn, suddenly alarms flash and sirens wail while the device is pointed at a promising-looking stone. What is the probability that the stone contains a diamond?
Most would say that if the device advertises 99 percent accuracy, then there is a 99 percent chance that the device is correctly discerning a diamond, and a 1 percent chance that it has given a false positive reading. But consider: Of the one hundred and one stones in the field, only one is truly a diamond. Granted, our machine has a very high probability of correctly declaring it to be a diamond. But there are many more diamond-free stones, and while the machine only has a 1 percent chance of falsely declaring each of them to be a diamond, there are a hundred of them. So if we were to wave the detector over every stone in the field, it would, on average, sound twice—once for the real diamond, and once when a false reading was triggered by a stone. If we know only that the alarm has sounded, these two possibilities are roughly equally probable, giving us an approximately Fifty percent chance that the stone really contains a diamond.
This is a simplified version of the argument that Ioannidis applies to the process of science itself. The stones in the field are the set of all possible testable hypotheses, the diamond is a hypothesized connection or effect that happens to be true, and the diamond-detecting device is the scientific method. A tremendous amount depends on the proportion of possible hypotheses which turn out to be true, and on the accuracy with which an experiment can discern truth from falsehood. Ioannidis shows that for a wide variety of scientific settings and fields, the values of these two parameters are not at all favorable.
- According to the passage, which of the following is/are true about Open Science Collaboration?
(i) It had tried to repeat many published psychology experiments
(ii) The OSC was the biggest attempt yet to check a field’s results
(iii) It was in tandem with the earlier researches and findings.
(a) Only (i)
(b) Only (ii)
(c) Both (i) and (ii)
(d) Both (ii) and (iii)
(e) All of these
- According to the author what is the problem with science?
(a) It changes with time.
(b) It is very rigid.
(c) It’s not what it looks like.
(d) It’s a virtual concept
(e) None of these
- What according to the passage is an unspoken rule in the pharmaceutical industry?
(a) The basic research on which a drug’s development is based is not valid
(b) So much of it simply isn’t
(c) Published data never matches up with their in-house attempts to replicate
(d) The Bayer researchers drown in bad studies
(e) Half of all academic biomedical research will ultimately prove false
- According to the given passage, which of the following is/are the possible interpretations that can be made if a study fails to replicate?
(a) There was a difference in experimental setup between the original investigation and the failed replication
(b) The original finding was false
(c) We have the opportunity to learn what the difference was between them
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(e) All (a), (b) and (c)
- According to the given passage, what is the actual probability that the stone contains a diamond?
(a) 75 percent
(b) 65 percent
(c) 1 percent
(d) 99 percent
(e) 50 percent
Directions (6-10): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is ‘No error’, the answer is (e). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any.)
- Everybody know (a)/ that his failure can (b)/ be attributed only (c)/ to his lack of practice. (d)/ No error (e)
- The significance (a)/of the detection of (b)/ gravitational waves (c)/ should not be lost on us. (d)/ No error (e)
- This is a strange world (a)/ where each one pursues their (b)/ own golden bubble (c)/ and laughs at others for doing the same.(d)/ No error (e)
- The Ganga is a (a)/ river whose origin (b)/ has always been a (c)/ matter of speculation. (d)/ No error (e)
- Even after sixty (a)/ years of independence (b)/ lakhs of people do not (3)/ have beds to sleep. (d)/ No error. (e)
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