Nobel Prize 2019 : Know Everything About Nobel Prize

2019 Nobel Prize

History

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.

In 1968, Sweden’s central bank Sveriges Riksbank established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. The award is based on a donation received by the Nobel Foundation in 1968 from Sveriges Riksbank on the occasion of the bank’s 300th anniversary. The first Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen in 1969. The Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, according to the same principles as for the Nobel Prizes that have been awarded since 1901.

About

Awarded for Outstanding contributions for humanity in:

  • Chemistry
  • Literature
  • Peace
  • Physics
  • Physiology or medicine
  •  Economic sciences

Country        

  • Sweden (all prizes except the Peace Prize)
  • Norway (Peace Prize only)

Presented by          

  • Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute (Physiology or Medicine)
  • Norwegian Nobel Committee (Peace)
  • Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Chemistry, Economic Sciences, Physics)
  • Swedish Academy (Literature)
  • Swedish Academy (Literature)

Reward(s)   

  • Prize money of 9 million SEK, approx. US$986,000 a medal and a diploma

First awarded         

  • 1901; 119 years ago

2019 Nobel Prize List

Category

Persons

Reasons

Medicine or Physiology

  • William G. Kaelin Jr (American)
  • Gregg L. Semenza (American)
  • Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe (British scientist)
They have been nominated for the prize for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.
Physics
  • James Peebles (Canadian-American)
  • Michel Mayor (Switzerland)
  • Didier Queloz (Switzerland)
For contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos” with one half to James Peebles “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology”, the other half jointly to Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star.
Chemistry
  • John D Goodenough (Germany)
  • Stanley Whittingham (US)
  • Akira Yoshino (Japan)
For the development of lithium-ion batteries.
Literature
  • Olga Tokarczuk (2018, Tokarczuk)
  • Peter Handke (2019, Austrian)
Olga Tokarczuk: “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life.”( Tokarczuk, who also won the Man Booker International Prize last year, was awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize)

Peter Handke: For an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience.”

Peace
  • Abiy Ahmed Ali (Ethiopia’s PM)
Ali has been selected for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea.
Economics
  • Abhijit Banerjee (Indian American)
  •  Esther Duflo  (US)
  •  Michael Kremer (US)

The research conducted by the 2019 Economic Sciences Laureates has considerably improved our ability to fight global poverty. In just two decades, their new experiment-based approach has transformed development economics, which is now a flourishing field of research.

 

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