English Grammar Rules : Pronoun

Pronoun

Pronouns are words that are used in place of nouns called Pronoun.

संज्ञा के बदले आए हुए शब्द को सर्वनाम कहते है। संज्ञा के बदले आए हुए शब्द को सर्वनाम कहते है।

Pronouns

Types of Pronouns

There are eight types of Pronouns

(1) Personal Pronoun. (व्यक्तिवाचक सर्वनाम )

(2) Possessive Pronoun (स्वत्वबोधक सर्वनाम)

(3) Reflexive Pronoun (निजवाचक सर्वनाम )

(4) Relative Pronoun (संबंधवाचक सर्वनाम )

(5) Demonstrative Pronoun (निश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम )

(6) Indefinite Pronoun (अनिश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम )

(7) Interrogative Pronoun (प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम )

(8) Distributive Pronoun (वितरणवाचक सर्वनाम )

(1) Personal Pronoun. (व्यक्तिवाचक सर्वनाम )- Describes a particular person or thing or group is called Personal Pronoun. like I, me, he, she, it, they etc.

I, me, he, she, it, they आदि सीघे व्यक्ति या वस्तु को दरसाता है उसे व्यक्तिवाचक सर्वनाम कहते है।

Personal Pronoun Can be classified into three groups

First Person – I and WE (Example- I am a boy, We are playing cricket)

Second Person – YOU (Example- You are honest)

Third Person- HE, SHE, IT, THEY (Example- She is beautiful girl, It is a pen)

(2) Possessive Pronoun (स्वत्वबोधक सर्वनाम)- Indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a thing/person to another thing/person is called Possessive Pronoun. like my, mine, hers, yours etc.

(वैसा सर्वनाम जिसमे स्वयं के भाव का बोध हो उसे स्वत्वबोधक सर्वनाम कहते है )

Pronouns

(3) Reflexive Pronoun (निजवाचक सर्वनाम ) – Describes noun when subject’s action turns back upon the subject itself. Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction between the subject and an object is called Reflexive Pronoun. Like Yourself, Myself, himself, ourselves, itself etc.

वैसा सर्वनाम जिसमे निजत्व का बोघ हो और अधिपत्य का अहसास कराता हो उसे निजवाचक सर्वनाम कहते है जैसे Yourself, Myself, himself, ourselves, itself etc.

(4) Relative Pronoun (संबंधवाचक सर्वनाम ) – Describes a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to be given about it. It joins relative clause and relative sentence. It does double work – the work of a pronoun and also the work of a conjunction. Like who, whose, which, that, etc.

एक संज्ञा का वर्णन करता है जिसे पहले उल्लेख किया गया है और इसके बारे में अधिक जानकारी दी जानी है। यह सापेक्ष खण्ड और सापेक्ष वाक्य में शामिल हो जाता है। यह दोहरा काम करता है – एक सर्वनाम का कार्य और एक संयोजन का कार्य भी। जैसे- who, whose, which, that, etc.

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(5) Demonstrative Pronoun (निश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम )-  That Pronoun indicate Points out to a person, place, or thing. Like -this, that, these, those etc.

वह सर्वनाम किसी व्यक्ति, स्थान या चीज़ को इंगित करता है। जैसे — ये, वह, ये आदि।

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(6) Indefinite Pronoun (अनिश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम )- The pronouns used in the sentence which do not refer any particular person or object. Pronouns that are used in a general way are called as indefinite pronoun. Like -One, any, many, all, some, somebody, someone, few, many, others, nobody, everybody etc.

वैसे सर्वनाम जो अनिश्चय की स्थिति का बोध कराता है उसे अनिश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम कहते है जैसे One, any, many, all, some, somebody, someone, few, many, others, nobody, everybody etc.

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(7) Interrogative Pronoun (प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम )- The pronouns that are used for asking questions is known as interrogative pronoun. Like who, what, where, which, whose, whom etc.

वैसे सर्वनाम जो प्रश्न पूछने मे उपयोग करते है उसे प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम कहते है जैसे who, what, where, which, whose, whom etc.

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(8) Distributive Pronoun (वितरणवाचक सर्वनाम )-The pronouns that are used to indicate all the members of the representative group is called Distributive Pronoun. Like Each, everyone, either and neither etc.

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Some Importants Rules

Rule -1

Each other is used for two people and one another is used for more than two people.

Each other दो लोगों के लिए और one another दो से अधिक लोगों के लिए प्रयोग होता है |

Example- Sita and Sahil hate each other.

These children love one another.

Rule- 2

The use of two or three persons in the same sentence, firstly, the second person then the third person and finally the first person.

दो या तीनों Persons का प्रयोग एक ही वाक्य में होने पर, सबसे पहले Second Person फिर Third Person और अन्त में First Person को लगाते है |

Example- You, he and I are brother.

 You and I can do this work.

Rule-3

Any, None, Each is used for two or more

Any, None Each का प्रयोग दो या दो से अधिक के लिए किया जाता है

Either, Neither is used for just two

Either, Neither का प्रयोग सिर्फ दो के लिए किया जाता है

Note- दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के लिए Either के बदले Any/anyone तथा Neither के बदले None का प्रयोग किया जाता है

Example- None of the sportsmen of our school could get a medal in swimming.

Neither of these two students has done this work.

Each of the students is doing this work.

Rule 4

Whom (who, whom, to whom) is used for only person and whose (whom, whose) is also used for persons as well as inanimate objects.

Whom (जिसे, जिसको, जिनको, जिन्हें) का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों के लिए तथा whose (जिनका, जिसका) का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों के साथ-साथ निर्जीव वस्तुओं के लिए भी होता है |

Example- That is the girl whom I hate.

He watched Dusty, whose grip tightened on the wheel as he muttered curses.

Rule 5

If the word Indefinite Pronoun ‘One’ is used in the sentence, then by the end, the use of one will be used instead of Pronoun.

यदि वाक्य में Indefinite Pronoun ‘One’ का प्रयोग हुआ है तो अन्त तक Pronoun के स्थान पर one का ही प्रयोग होगा |

Example- One should do one’s duty.

Rule-6

If the relative Pronoun is a Subject of the verb, then the verb is used according to the antecedent number of the relative Pronoun and the person.

यदि Relative Pronoun verb का Subject हो, तो verb Relative Pronoun के antecedent के number और person के अनुसार प्रयोग होती है |

Example- It is I who am your brother.

Rule-7

Reflexive Pronoun can never be the subject of any verb alone, Noun or Pronoun will definitely come before it.

Reflexive Pronoun कभी भी अकेला किसी Verb का Subject नहीं बन सकता उससे पहले कोई Noun या Pronoun अवश्य आएगा |

Example:

Incorrect: Myself said she is stupid, he thought.

Correct: I have myself said she is stupid, he thought.

Rule- 8

This and these are used for the near object or person. This is used for one and these are used for more than one

This तथा These का प्रयोग निकट की वस्तु या व्यक्ति के लिए किया जाता है This का प्रयोग एक तथा These का प्रयोग एक से अधिक के लिए किया जाता है|

That and those are used for a distant object or a person that use one and those are used for more than one.

That तथा Those का प्रयोग दूर की वस्तु या व्यक्ति के लिए किया जाता है That का प्रयोग एक तथा Those का प्रयोग एक से अधिक के लिए किया जाता है|

Example- This is our planting-ground.

Those pens are mine

Quiz Based On Pronoun

(1)The committee were (a)/divided in(b)/ its opinion(c) / regarding this issue (d) / No error (e)

(2) Mr. Srivastav, (a)  / my friend and professor, (b)  / is known for (c)  / their good behaviour. (d)  / No Error (e)

(3) There is (a) / none who (b)  / can help you (c)  / in this emergency time. (d)  / No Error (e)

(4) Veg Rice, that we(a)/ eat at least twice(b)/ a week is one of(c)/ my family’s favorite meals(d)/ No error. (e)

(5) The Manager ordered the (a) / watchman to (b)  / let the boys (c)  / and I go in. (d)  / No Error (e)

Answer

1-C (There will replace its)

2- D (His will replace There)

3- B (That will replace Who)

4- E

5- D (Me will replace I)

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