English Grammar Rule: Tenses

Tense(काल)

In any sentence, it is the form of verb through which it shows that the work done in the sentence is related to the time; The work is currently happening, was in the past, or is going to happen in the future.

किसी भी वाक्य में क्रिया का वह रूप है जिसके माध्यम से यह पता चलता है कि वाक्य में किए गए कार्य का समय के साथ क्या सम्बन्ध है; कार्य वर्तमान में हो रहा है, बीते हुए समय में हुआ था या भविष्य में होने वाला है।

There are three types of Tenses

i)Present Tense वर्तमान काल

ii) Past Tense भूत काल

iii) Future Tense भविष्य काल

Tenses

There are four types of the three tense

i)Simple/Indefinit

ii) Imperfect/Continuous/ Progressive

iii) Perfect/ Non- Progressive

vi) Perfect Continuous/ Perfect Progressive 

Tense Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Present I go.

मैं जाता हूँ।

He Goes.

वह जाता हैं

He is  Going

वह जा रहा है

He has Gone.

वह जा चुका है।

He has been going since April.

वह अप्रैल से जा रहा है।

Past He went yesterday.

वह कल गया

He was going.

वह जा रहा था

He had gone before I came.

मेरे आने से पहले ही वह जा  चुका था।

He had been going for three months.

वह तीन महीने से जा रहा था।

Future I shall go.

मैं  जाऊंगा

He will be going.

वह जाता रहेगा

He will have gone by Friday.

वह शुक्रवार तक जा चुकेगा

He will have been going from tomorrow.

वह कल से जाता रहेगा

Present tense

a) Present indefinite tense

b) Present continuous tense

c) Present perfect tense

d) Present perfect continuous tense

a) Present indefinite tense इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ ता, ते, ती, Etc का प्रयोग होता है।

Affirmative Sentence- Subject +V1/V5 + Object word

Negative Sentence- Sub+ A.V (do/does) + not + V1 + O.W

Interrogative Sentence-  A.V (Do/Does) + Subject + V1 + O.W + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Do/Does) + not + Subject + V1 + O.W + ?

WH Question- WH- Word + A.V (Do/Does) + Sub + V1 + O.W + ?

Negative WH Question- WH-Word + A.V. (Do/Does) + Not + Subject + V1 + O.W + ?

 Note- Third Person singular number के Subject (He, She, It, Any name etc) के साथ V5/Does use करते and बाकी Subject ) के साथ V1/Do use करते

Example-

 Affirmative Sentence- I eat a Mango. She sings a song.  You write a letter.

Negative Sentence- I do not eat a mango. She does not sing a song.

Interrogative Sentence- Do I eat a mango? Does she sing a song?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- Don’t I eat a mango? Doesn’t Abhinav read a Novel?

WH Question- How do they do this work? Why does she go there?

Negative WH Question- Why don’t you go there? When doesn’t she read a book?

b) Present continuous/ Imperfect tense- इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ रहा है, रही है, रहे हैं, रहा हूँ का प्रयोग होता है।

Affirmative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Am/is/are) + V4 + O.W

Negative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Am/is/are) + not + V4+ O.W

Interrogative Sentence- A.V + (Am/is/are) +Sub + V4 +O.W + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Is/Are) + not +Sub + V4 + O.W + ?

WH Question- WH-Word + A.V (Am/is/are) + Sub + V4 + O.W +?

Negative WH Question- WH-Word + A.V (Is/Are) + not + Sub + V4 + O.W +?

Example

Affirmative Sentence- I am reading a book. You are writing a letter. She is singing a song.

Negative Sentence–  I am not reading a book. You are not writing a letter. She is not singing a song.

Interrogative Sentence-  Am I reading a book? Are You writing a letter? Is she singing a song ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- Aren’t we playing football? Isn’t she singing a song?

WH Question- Where is she going ?

Negative WH Question- What isn’t she writing in a latter?

c) Present perfect tenseइस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ चुका है, चुकी है, चुके हैं, चुका हूँ , लिया है, दिया है, ली है, दी है, की है आदि का प्रयोग होता है।

Affirmative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Has/Have) + V3 + O.W

Negative Sentence–  Sub + A.V (Has/Have) + Not + V3 + O.W

Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Has/ Have) + Sub + V3 + O.W + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Has/Have) + Not + Sub + V3 + O.W + ?

WH Question- WH- Word + A.V (Has/Have) + Sub + V3 + O.W  + ?

Negative WH-Question- WH- Word + A.V (Has/Have) + Not + Sub + V3 + O.W +?

Note- I, He, She, It, Any Name के साथ “Has” use and बाकी सभी subject के साथ “Have” use

Example

Affirmative Sentence- I have read a book. She has sung a song.

Negative Sentence–   We have not played football.  Abhinav has not read a book.

Interrogative Sentence- Have I read a book? Has she sung a song?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- Have not I read a book? Has not Abhinav danced in the class?

WH Question- How has she helped me? Why has Mohan sold his home?

Negative WH-Question- Why have not you called me? When has not she gone to school?

d) Present perfect continuous tense- इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ रहा है, रही है, रहे हैं, रहा हूँ का प्रयोग होता है। फर्क सिर्फ इतना है कि यहाँ पर समय के बारे में भी बताया जाता है। और ध्यान रहे समय के साथ ‘से का प्रयोग होता है।

Affirmative Sentence- Sub + A.V(Has/Have) + been +V4+ O.W + for/ Since+ Time

Negative Sentence–   Sub + A.V (Has/ Have) + not + been + V4+ O.W + for/ Since + Time

Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Has/ Have) + Sub + Been + V4+ O.W + For/ Since + Time+?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Has/ Have) + Not + Sub + been+ V4 + O.W + For/ Since + Time+ ?

WH Question- WH- Word + A.V (has/ have) + sub + been+ V4 + O.W + For/ Since +Time +?

Negative WH-Question- WH word + A.V (Has/ Have)+ Not + Sub + been + V4 + O.W + For/ Since + Time + ?

Note- Period of time “कितना समय सेमें “For” use होता and Point of time “कब से me “Since” use होता

Example

Affirmative Sentence– I have been reading books for two hours. He has been reading in this school since 2000.

Negative Sentence–   I have not been reading books for two hours. He has not been reading in this school since 2000.

Interrogative Sentence- Have I been reading books for two hours? Has he been reading in this school since 2000?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- Have not you been writing a letter since 9’O clock?

WH Question- Why has he been lying there since morning?

Negative WH-Question- Why have not you been reading in this school since 2000?

 Past Tense

a) Past indefinite tense

b) Past continuous tense

c) Past perfect tense

d) Past perfect continuous tense

a) Past indefinite tense इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ या, यी, ये आदि का प्रयोग होता है। इस Tense में कभी भी है, हैं, हो, हूँ या फिर था, थे, थी का प्रयोग नहीं होता।

Affirmative SentenceSub + V1 + O.W

Negative SentenceSub + A.V (did) + not + V1 + O.W

Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Did) + Sub + V1 + O.W + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Did) + not + Sub + V1 + O.W +?

WH Question- WH-Word + A.V (Did) + Sub + V1 + O.W + ?

Negative WH-Question- WH- Word + A.V (Did) + Not + Sub + V1 + O.W + ?

Example

Affirmative Sentence– I read a book. We played football. You wrote a letter.

Negative Sentence– I did not read a book. She did not write a letter.

Interrogative Sentence- Did I read a book? Did you write a letter? Did she sing a song ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- Did not I read a book? Did not you write a letter?

WH Question- How did they go there? Why did she weep in the room?

Negative WH-Question- Why did not she go to Delhi?

b) Past continuous/Imperfect tenseइस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ रहा था, रही थी, रहे थे का प्रयोग होता है।

Affirmative Sentence- Sub+ A.V (Was/Were) + V4 + O.W

Negative SentenceSub + A.V (Was/Were) + Not + V4 + O.W

Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Was/ Were) +Sub + V4+ O.W + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Was/Were) + Not + Sub + V4 + O.W + ?

WH Question- WH- Word + A.V (Was/Were) + Sub + V4 + O.W + ?

Negative WH-Question- WH- Word + A.V (Was/ Were) + Not + Sub + V4+ O.W + ?

Example

Affirmative Sentence- I was reading a book. You were writing a letter.

Negative Sentence- I was not reading a book. She was not singing a song.

Interrogative Sentence- Was I reading a book? Were you writing a letter?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- Was not I reading a book? Were not you writing a letter?

WH Question-Why were you making a noise? How was he doing this work?

Negative WH-Question- Why were not you reading in your class?

c) Past perfect tense- इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ चुका था, चुकी थी, चुके थे, लिया था, दिया था, दी थी, ली थी, की थी आदि का प्रयोग होता है।

Affirmative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Had) + V3 + O.W

Negative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Had) + Not + V3 + O.W

Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Had) + Sub + V3 + O.W + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Had) + Not + Sub + V3 + O.W + ?

WH Question- WH-Word + A.V (Had) + Sub + V3 + O.W + ?

Negative WH-Question- WH- Word + A.V (had) + Not + Sub + V3+ O.W +?

Example

Affirmative Sentence- I had visited Kanpur. He had read the Novel.

Negative Sentence- We had not eaten a mango. They had not reached the station.

Interrogative Sentence- Had you gone a Kolkata? Had she sung a song?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- Hadn’t she slept? Had not Alpa danced in the room?

WH Question– Where had I arrived? Why had Swati broken the chair?

Negative WH-Question- Why had not he reached the station?

d) Past perfect continuous tense- इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ रहा था, रही थी, रहे थे का प्रयोग होता है। यहाँ पर समय के बारे में भी बताया जाता है।

Affirmative Sentence- Sub + A.V (had) + been + V4 + O.W + For/ Since+ Time.

 Negative Sentence- Sub + A.V (had) + not + been + V4 + O.W + for/ Since + time

Interrogative Sentence- A.V (had) + sub + been + V4 + O.W + for/ Since + time + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- A.V (had) + not + Sub + been + V4 + O.W + for/ since + time + ?

WH QuestionWH- Word + A.V (had) + Sub + been + V4 + O.W + for/since +time + ?

Negative WH-Question- WH-word +A.V (had) +not +Sub + been + V4 + O.W +for/Since +time +?

Future Tense भविष्य काल

a) Future indefinite tense

b) Future continuous tense

c) Future perfect tense

d) Future perfect continuous tense

a) Future indefinite tense- इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ गा, गे, गी का प्रयोग होता है।

Affirmative Sentence- Sub + A.V ( Shall/Will) + V1 + O.W

Negative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Shall/Will) + Not + V1 + O.W

Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Shall/Will)+ Sub + V1 + O.W + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Shall/Will) + not + Sub + V1 + O.W + ?

WH QuestionWH- Word + A.V (Shall/Will) + Sub + V1 + O.W + ?

Negative WH-Question- WH- Word + A.V (Shall/Will) +Not + Sub + V1 + O.W +?

Example

Affirmative Sentence- I shall read a book. You will play cricket. They will write a letter.

Negative Sentence- I shall not read a book. They will not write a letter.

Interrogative Sentence- Will you play cricket? Will they write a letter?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- Will not you play cricket?

WH Question– How will she recite this poem?

Negative WH-Question- Where will not we go there?

b) Future continuous/Imperfect tense- इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ ता रहुगा, ते रहेंगे, ता रहेगा, Etc का प्रयोग होता है।

इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ चुका होगा, चुकी होगी, चुके होंगे, लिया होगा, दिया होगा, दी होगी, ली होगी, की होगी आदि का प्रयोग होता है।

इस Tense में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ रहा होगा, रही होगी, रहे होंगे

Affirmative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Shall/ Will) + be + V4 + OW

Negative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Shall/ Will) not + be +V4 + O.W

Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Shall/ Will) + Sub + be + V4 + O.W + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence-A.V (Shall/ Will) +Not +Sub + be + V4 + O.W + ?

WH Question- WH-Word + A.V (Shall/ Will) + Sub + be + V4 + O.W + ?

Negative WH-Question- WH- Word + A.V (Shall/Will)+ Not +Sub + be +V4 +O.W + ?

Example

Affirmative Sentence-You will be playing cricket.  They will be writing a letter.

Negative Sentence- You will not be playing cricket. They will not be writing a letter.

Interrogative Sentence- Will you be playing cricket ? Will they be writing a letter?

Negative Interrogative Sentence- Will not you be playing cricket? Will not she be dancing in the room?

WH Question– Why will he be making a noise in the classroom?

Negative WH-Question- Why will not he be reading in this classroom?

c) Future perfect tense- Future Perfect Tense में हिन्दी वाक्यों के अन्त में चुकेगा, चुकेगी, चुकेंगे, चुकूँगा आदि शब्द आते हैं | Helping verb “will have” “shall have” के साथ verb की 3rd form का use करते हैं |

Affirmative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Shall/ Will) + Have + V3 + O.W + by/ before + Point of time

Negative Sentence- Sub + A.V (Shall/Will) + Not + have + V3 + O.W + by/ before + Point of time

Interrogative Sentence- A.V (Shall/Will) +Sub + have + V3 + O.W + by/ before + Point of time + ?

Negative Interrogative Sentence– A.V (Shall/Will) + Not + Sub + have + V3 + O.W + by/before + Point of time + ?

WH QuestionWH- Word + A.V (Shall/Will ) +Sub + have +V3 + O.W + by/before + Point of time + ?

Negative WH-Question- WH- Word + A.V (Shall/Will ) +Not + Sub + Have + V3 + O.W + by/before + Point of time + ?

Example

Affirmative Sentence- You will have played cricket by/before this evening. She will have danced in the room by/before 9’O clock.

Negative Sentence- You will not have played cricket by/before this evening.

Interrogative Sentence- Will you have played cricket by/before this evening ?

Quiz Based on Tense

(1)The prisoners walked slowly (A) / for they knew (B) / that as soon as they cross (C) / the gate the jailor would ask them to jog.(D) / No error.(E)

(2) By adopting (A) / an agitational approach the Association of resident doctors have (B) / lost the good will be the government (C) / and the sympathy of the people. (D) / No error.(E)

(3) I can play the piano (A) / to you now (B) / but I am afraid of (C) / to annoy you. (D) / No error (E)

(4) He noticed children (A) / to talk together (B) / and caught them (C) / climbing the trees.(D) / No error.(E)

(5) We shall wait (A) / until (B) / he writes (C) / his next book. (D) / No error.(E)

Answer

(1)Option C. Change ‘cross’ to ‘crossed’.

(2) Option B. Put ‘have’ before ‘the Association of resident doctors’.

(3) Option D.’to annoy’ should be ‘annoying’. Gerund should be used after verbs ending in gerund.

(4) Option B. ‘to talk together’ should be ‘talking together’.

(5) No error

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