Table of Contents
IBPS PO Pre English Language Quiz
English Language is a part of almost all major competitive exams in the country and is perhaps the most scoring section also. Aspirants who regularly practice questions have a good chance of scoring well in the English Language Section. So here we are providing you with the IBPS PO Pre English Language Quiz to help you prepare better. This IBPS PO Pre English Language Quiz includes all of the most recent pattern-based questions, as well as Previous Year Questions. This IBPS PO Pre English Language Quiz is available to you at no cost. Candidates will be provided with a detailed explanation of each question in this IBPS PO Pre English Language Quiz. Candidates must practice this IBPS PO Pre English Language Quiz to achieve a good score in the English Language Section.
Directions (1-5): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them, while answering some of the questions.
A major problem of Indian industrial and commercial development was the supply of capital. Until 1850, British capital was shy of Indian adventure. The risks and unknown factors were too great, and prospects in other directions too bright. The working capital of the agency house after 1813 at first consisted mainly of the savings of the Company’s servants. Their cries of woe when these houses fell as in the crisis of 1831 were loud and poignant. Indian capital was also shy for different reasons. It needed to acquire confidence in the new regime, and outside the presidency towns, to acquire confidence in the new regime, and outside the presidency towns, to acquire the habit of investment. Investment for large scale production for ‘enabling’ works like railways was an unfamiliar and suspected practice. Thus, the first big development came when European capital was coaxed into the country by government guarantees or went of its own free will to develop industries with which it was already familiar as in the case of jute or coal. Indian capital followed where it was in touch with European practice as in Bombay (Mumbai) and dealing with familiar products like cotton. These considerations throw into all the greater relief the achievement of the Tata’s in developing iron and steel. Thus, the major part of the capital provided was British which a steadily increasing Indian proportion from 1900. As late as 1931-32 the capital of companies registered abroad was nearly four times that of companies registered in India. But this is not an exact guide because it leaves out of account the stock in British companies held by Indians, as well as government stocks.
Speaking plainly, it may be said that the capital of the cotton industry was mainly Indian, that of the iron and steel industry entirely so, that of the jute industry about half and half, while the coal and plantation industries were mainly British, together with that used for the building of railways, irrigation, and other public works. Management in the cotton and steel industries was mainly Indian though European technicians were freely employed, that of the jute, coal, and the plantation industries being European, the jute men in particular being Scotch. Their capital, apart of course from government enterprise, operated thorough joint-stock companies and managing agencies. The latter arose through the convenience found by bodies of capitalists seeking to develop some new activities and lacking any Indian experience, of operating through local agents. It arose in the period after 1813 when private merchants took over the trade formerly monopolized by the Company. The money world be found in Britain to promote a tea garden, a coal mine, or a jute mill, but the management would be confided to a firm already on the spot. The managing agency was the hyphen connecting capital with experience and local knowledge.
Until 1914 the policy of the government continued in the main to be one of ‘enabling’ private capital and enterprise to develop the country. Direct promotion was confined to public utilities like canals and railways. The line between enabling and interfering action became distinctly blurred, however, in the case of the cotton industry and there was a tendency for enabling action to pass over into the positive promotion of particular projects. This was most noticeable in the time of Lord Curzon with his establishment of an imperial department of agriculture with a research station at Pusa and a department of commerce and industry presided over by a sixth member of the Viceroy’s Council. The First World War began the transition to a new period of active promotion and positive support. As the conflict lengthened there arose a demand for Indian manufactured goods. India failed to take full advantage of this opportunity, partly because of uncertainty as to the future and partly because the means for sudden expansion were lacking. The outcome of this situation was the appointment of an industrial commission in 1916, under pressure from London. The commission criticized the unequal development of Indian industry which had led to the missing of her, war opportunity. A much closer co-operation with industry was planned through provincial departments of industry. Increased technical training and technical assistance to industry was proposed while it was suggested that the central government should set up a stores department which should aim at making India self-sufficing in this respect. The commission’s report was only partially implemented, but a stores department and provincial industrial departments were created and something was done towards promoting technical assistance. The importance of the report and its aftermath was that it marked the transition from the conception of Indian economy in broadly colonial terms with freedom for private enterprise to the conception of India as an autonomous economic unit.
- From this passage, it can be inferred that one of the problem that could have cropped up in the early stages of industrialization might have been.
(a) government interference in day-to-day operations of business.
(b) equitable sharing of risks between domestic and foreign investors.
(c) ensuring adequate working capital.
(d) regulation of the stock markets to protect investors from dubious enterprises.
(e) the alignment of interest of the capitalists and the management.
Directions (2–3): Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (4–5): Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (6-10): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is (e). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any)
- I did not like (a) / going to night school (b) / but I had no alternative (c) / as I have to work in day time. (d) No error (e)
- Hardly I stepped (a) / out of my house when (b) / I saw some policeman (c)/ coming towards my house. (d) / No error (e)
- Today, the cost of living (a) / is such higher that many (b) / people find it difficult to (c) / keep their health burning. (d) / No error
- Swati has such a fine (a) memory that she can (b) / recollect anything what (c) / happened many years ago. (d) / No error (e)
- The agitating students had taken (a) / a vow not to return to their (b) / classes until their demands were not (c) / accepted by the Principal. (d) / No error (e)
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