Main Part of Computer (Hardware)

Main Parts of computer

Hardware – Computer hardware is what you can physically touch includes the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. It also includes all the parts inside the computer case, such as the hard disk drive, motherboard, video card, and many others.

Hardware topics

Peripheral device (input/output) Input Mousekeyboardjoystickimage scannerwebcamgraphics tabletmicrophone
Output Monitorprinterloudspeaker
Both Floppy disk drive, hard disk driveoptical disc drive, teleprinter
Computer buses Short range RS-232SCSIPCIUSB
Long range (computer networking) EthernetATMFDDI

Input Devices

 In computing, an input device is a peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance.

Examples: Computer keyboard

  • Digital camera
  • Digital video
  • Graphics tablet
  • Image scanner
  • Joystick
  • Microphone
  • Mouse
  • Overlay keyboard
  • Real-time clock
  • Trackball
  • Touchscreen

Keyboard – A Keyboard is the most fundamental input device for any computer system. It helps to enter data in computer.

Mouse – A mouse is used to input data by sending a signal to the computer, based on hovering the cursor and selecting with the left mouse button. The left mouse acts as a ‘enter’ button. The right mouse button can be selected and will often pop up a window of choices. The scrolling wheel is used to move the view of the screen up or down. By moving your mouse to a location in a document, on a digital photo or over a choice of music, you can click the left mouse button to place the cursor.

Trackballs – A trackball is an input device used to enter motion data into computers or other electronic devices. It serves the same purpose as a mouse, but is designed with a moveable ball on the top, which can be rolled in any direction. Instead of moving the whole device, you simply roll the moveable ball on top of the trackball unit with your hand to generate motion input.

Barcode reader – A barcode reader (or barcode scanner) is an electronic device that can read and output printed barcodes to a computer. Like a flatbed scanner, it consists of a light source, a lens and a light sensor translating optical impulses into electrical ones.

Digital camera – a camera which produces digital images that can be stored in a computer and displayed on screen.

Gamepad – a handheld controller for video games.

Joystick – a lever that can be moved in several directions to control the movement of an image on a computer or similar display screen. It mainly used in playing games.

Microphone – an instrument for converting sound waves into electrical energy variations which may then be amplified, transmitted, or recorded.

Scanner – a device that scans documents and converts them into digital data.

Webcam – a video camera connected to a computer, allowing its images to be seen by Internet users.

Optical character recognition (OCR) – is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text.

Digitizer – It converts analog information into digital form.

Optical Mark reading (OMR) – Optical Mark Readers reads pencil or pen marks made in pre-defined positions on paper forms as responses to questions or tick list prompts.

Output devices

An output device is any device used to send data from a computer to another device or user. Most computer data output that is meant for humans is in the form of audio or video. Examples include monitors, projectors, speakers, headphones and printers.

Example: Computer monitor, Printer, PC speaker, Projector, Sound card, Video card.

Monitors – A Monitor is a TV-like display attached to the computer on which the output can be displayed and viewed. It can either be a monochrome display or a colour display.

Two types of monitors:

1)CRT (Cathode ray tube) – The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns, and a phosphorescent screen used to view images.

2) Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display (TFT LCD) – A thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT LCD) is a variant of a liquid-crystal display (LCD) that uses thin-film transistor technology to improve image qualities such as addressability and contrast.

Printer – Printer is a output device for printing text or pictures.

Two types of Printer:

1)Impact printer – An impact printer is a printer that strikes a print head against an ink ribbon to mark the paper. Common examples include dot matrix and daisy-wheel printers.

2) Non-Impact printer – Non-impact printers print the characters without using ribbon. Two common types of non-impact printers include inkjet printers, which spray small drops of ink onto each page, and laser printers, which roll ink onto the paper using a cylindrical.

CPU (central processing unit)

A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term “central processing unit” at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term “CPU” refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry.


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