PARA 13.2|IC 90, HRM One Liner|Chapter-7 | Motivation

PARA 13.2|IC 90, HRM One Liner|Chapter-7 | Motivation

Insurance exams offered by the Insurance Institute of India (III), consist of various papers either in Life or Non Life or Combined. Here we are providing ONE LINER IC 90, HRM Chapter 7: Motivation for para 13.2 and III exam . These questions will be very helpful for upcoming promotional exam in 2020.

IC 90, Human Resource Management is a very important topic in insurance promotional exam. This IC 90, Human Resource Management paper comes in all GIPSA exams which makes it very important.

Chapter 7: Motivation

  • Meaning of Motivation
  • Theories of Motivation
  • Motivators
  • Empowerment
  • Rewards

Meaning of Motivation

1)Motivation is „the desire to do‟. „Doing‟ includes „Not doing‟. Therefore when an employee is not working, he is actually motivated not to work.

2) Misdirected efforts to “motivate” create a lot of waste of energy. Perceptions of “negative attitude”, “coercion”, “authoritarian” etc. emerge. Resistance strengthens. Consequently unpleasant, non-collaborative relationships develop.

3) “What is Motivation”- When a person wants to do something, he is said to be motivated to do that something. When a person does not do any work, he is motivated not to do any work. He is motivated to do or not to do because thereby, he gets some satisfaction. He is satisfying some need through that conduct.

Theories of Motivation

4) Maslow‟s theory of motivation: According to Abraham Maslow, needs are grouped into five levels, starting from the lower level to the higher level needs. He calls this order „The Hierarchy of Needs‟ which is explained below:

4.1) Physiological needs: These are the basic needs for survival like the need for air, food, water, warmth and sleep. According to Maslow, unless these needs are satisfied, the other needs do not arise.

4.2) Security or safety needs: These needs are related to avoidance of physical danger, threat, sickness and deprivation (of job or property, for example). Stability is sought.

4.3) Affiliation or social needs: Since human beings are social beings, there is a need to belong to, to feel friendly and be accepted by others. Families, religions and group memberships provide satisfaction of these needs

4.4) Esteem or recognition needs: Every individual wants to be recognised by society. This is not necessarily recognition of achievement. It may be recognition of good character, reliability, lovability, to be talked well about. It provides self-respect, enhances self-esteem. It generates concern. If one is afraid, and another becomes aware of it and tries to help, there is recognition. Recognition is also sought through power, prestige and status.

4.5) Need for self-actualisation: Maslow ranks the need for self-actualisation or self realisation as the highest need which usually manifests after all the other needs are met. A self- actualising person tries to realise his maximum potential for self-expression and become really great and worthwhile.

5) Herzberg Hygiene Theory of Motivation: A study by Fredrick Herzberg showed that among the number of factors that employees experienced in a job, some provided satisfactions while others only provided dissatisfactions, if absent. He called the former group of factors “motivators” and the latter “hygiene factors”.

5.1) Hygiene factors: Hygiene factors must exist satisfactorily. Otherwise, there are negative feelings. Their presence removes dissatisfaction, but does not make people enthusiastic to work. They do not make workers want to do. This theory is called the Hygiene Theory or the Two Factor Theory.

Hygiene factors include:

  • Company policy and administration
  • Supervision
  • Salary
  • Interpersonal relations and
  • Working conditions

5.2) The motivators make the worker want to excel, to achieve. These findings brought into focus that monetary incentives, by way of higher wages and welfare measures, (emphasised as part of the human relations school) may not produce positive long-lasting results. The motivators are

  • Achievement
  • recognition,
  • the work itself, format-one below the other like Hygiene factors
  • challenge in work,
  • responsibility and

6) Achievement theory of motivation: David McClelland emphasised that the need to achieve exists in all persons, but is dormant in many and that it is possible to strengthen the motivation to achieve. When so developed, such people work to great capacity. This was called the Achievement Theory.

7) Vroom‟s Expectancy theory of Motivation: Another concept relating to motivation is that the effort put in will depend on how strong is the need to obtain satisfaction. Making an effort is the cost. Satisfaction derived is the benefit. The mind makes a quick cost-benefit analysis.

If the benefit is more, the effort will be made. There are two intervening factors.

  • One is the relationship between the effort and the possibility of the outcome that can give satisfaction.
  • The other is the perception of one‟s skills to perform.

8) Expectancy theory was developed by Victor Vroom, Porter and Lawler in the 1960s

To sum up, a person will make the effort to perform if:

  • The thinks that the effort can produce an outcome that may be satisfying (instrumentality)
  • The thinks that he has the skills to make the effort and produce the outcome (expectancy); and
  • The satisfactions that the outcome will provide, are strongly desired by him (valence)


9) Financial incentives: Motivation is an internal impulse. Nobody can motivate a worker, except himself. The manager can only create situations whereby the worker may become motivated. Many people believe even now, that money is a big motivator, and the more money a manager gives to his subordinates, the greater is the work he can expect from them.

9.1) The underlying assumptions behind all attempts to get people to work through offer of money is that human beings are basically economic beings who

  • Would respond positively when shown ways to reduce effort and earn more through higher output (Taylor)
  • Would be stirred to action by self-interest and economic advantages, and
  • Could be manipulated and controlled through the offer of financial incentives and working conditions

9.2) The “carrot and stick” approach may still get the best of work. In general, the manager must try to understand the unsatisfied needs of his subordinates and see how best he can satisfy those needs.

10) Job enrichment: One of the ways of making jobs help in development is known as „job enrichment.‟ Job enrichment is an attempt to make the job more interesting, providing more opportunity for challenge and achievement. This is done by giving more autonomy and responsibility.

11) Job enlargement attempts to make a job more varied thus removing the dullness associated with performing repetitive operations for long.


12) The worker works well when he wants to: Workers may not want to, when they experience that they are being treated as machines, of no value other than doing the boring routines entrusted to them by their managers. Fear of punishment may motivate them only to avert the fear through:

  • Minimal performance or
  • Pretensions to performance or
  • Using pressure through unions or other external sources to avert the punishment.

13) Research studies have revealed that a challenging job is considered to be more meaningful and therefore, more motivating to employees, than a routine job: However, everybody does not like challenging tasks. Some people prefer routine work to challenge. To such persons adding tasks can be threatening and demotivating. Secondly a job is challenging only in the early stages, when it is new. Later, when mastered, the job becomes routine and monotonous.

14) The resource available in people, is their knowledge, their skills, their insights, their creativity: These resources become available to the organisation for planning, adaptation or innovation, only if the people who possess them make them available. They may make the resources available or withhold the resources. They have the choice. The choice is made according to whether they feel like contributing to the organisation or not. This “feeling” is the motivation.

15) Choices are exercised by people not because they are told to do so but because they want to do so: If an employee senses a problem with a customer, he may try to solve the problem or he may just direct the customer to the senior or he may become rude and tell the customer that he need not expect any better treatment. Such choices are exercised by people not because they are told to do so but because they want to do so. Some may not want to exercise discretion even if told to do so.

Employees may want to try and solve the problem on their own initiative, and will do so if they:

  • feel empowered
  • have a sense of belonging to the organisation and are committed

16) Empowerment is what an employee feels about his duty, about what is expected from him: An employee not feeling empowered, will not take initiative, will not do anything more than what he is told to do. Perhaps he will do less.

17) Empowerment is what an employee feels about his duty, about what is expected from him: An employee not feeling empowered, will not take initiative, will not do anything more than what he is told to do. Perhaps he will do less.

18) Empowerment is not the same as delegation: A person who is formally vested with authority (delegation) may not exercise the same, if he feels that his judgment is likely to be questioned and reversed by the seniors. In this case, he does not feel empowered. He would not decide within his authority, unless he is sure that the decision would be the right one. Such persons delegate the authority upwards by consulting the senior for „advice‟, for „approval‟, etc.

19) If employees do not feel empowered, they may allow opportunities to pass by: A missed opportunity and the cost thereof will never be reflected in the accounting data or the output of the management information systems.

20) Those who do not feel empowered do not challenge or attempt to modify the decisions of seniors, even when aware of the need to modify.

21) An empowered employee focusses on results: He believes that he is expected to take the initiative and ensure that the customer‟s needs are met and thereby maintain and enhance the reputation of the organisation. He believes that if he hesitates and the customer turns sour, he would be letting down the organisation.

22) An empowered employee is likely to challenge company policies at meetings with seniors: If he is characterised as arrogant, rebellious or cantankerous, he may attempt conformity and feel less empowered. If well-intentioned efforts fail to work out as planned, there will have to be tolerance. Only then will the employees remain empowered.

23)Empowered employees make demands on management: They dislike conforming to rules and procedures which they see as restrictive of their capacity to perform. It is difficult to control their behaviours through rules. They need to be coached on values and philosophy of the company. That would be the way to control their behaviour at work.

24) Those used to traditional formal authority prevent empowering: Those used to traditional formal authority find it difficult to encourage initiatives from others. They prevent empowering.


25) Rewards: Theories on the motivations of people suggest that individuals act in order that they may get pleasure or satisfaction and avoid pain or dissatisfaction. Anything that gives satisfaction (pleasure) is a reward and anything that gives dissatisfaction (pain) is a punishment. People seek rewards and avoid punishments. The perceived possibility of rewards, leads to action. Punishments are part of the reward system.

26) Rewards are of various kinds

  • Monetary rewards may take the form of cash rewards, special increments, additional allowances, perquisites like transport, residential telephones, etc.
  • Non-monetary rewards have infinite variety. Some are job related like higher responsibility, shift to a position or place of choice, duties with more visibility. Some are not job related, like mention in company bulletins, press handouts, gifts to family, photographs in publicity literature, nominations for seminars, selection to address conventions, authority to represent company in negotiations or important meetings, holidays in a place of choice, admission to privileged rosters, (sometimes called clubs), invitation to lunch/dinner with V.I.Ps, and so on. Being made a role model is a big reward.

27) Values of rewards vary: An opportunity to represent the company at an important meeting or a holiday cruise may be liked by some. It is then a reward. But some persons may not enjoy such situations. To them, these are not rewards. They may seem to be punishments, if refusal of an offer from management is frowned upon.

28) The value of a reward increases according to Cost, Exclusiveness and Visibility: A prize worth Rs. 1000 has more value than a prize of Rs. 20. A gold medal has more value than a simple paragraph. A paragraph is better than a line. A 4-day trip to Goa is not as good as a trip to Mauritius. To be honoured in public is better than a letter of congratulations by post. A dinner with the Chairman is better than a dinner with the manager.

29) A reward system usually includes punishments to prevent undesirable behaviour: A punishment tends to have more negative influence than the positive effects of rewards. The threat of punishment may not prevent unacceptable performance. On the contrary, it could inhibit performance.

30) A reward is a confirmation of propriety, an endorsement of having done the right thing: If reward is not carefully monitored, they may convey the wrong messages and people‟s behaviour may tend to be improper.

31) In work organisations, reward systems influence the directions in which the energies of the people are directed: The rewards available should be such as to provide pleasure to the employees. The action which is rewarded should reflect behaviours that the management wants to encourage.

32) Every decision involves a choice between multiple options and use of individual judgement: Making choices requires experience and confidence. Some may avoid making decisions because they can be risky. The risk is that the decision could, on the basis of events that follow, found to be wrong and the decision maker taken to task. If such a risk (of being taken to task) is perceived, decisions will be avoided. Decisions may be avoided by asking for more information or pointing out inadequacies in the available data. Other persons, within the organisation, or the customers, may be blamed for the inadequacies.

33) The perceived threat of punishment for failure leads to inaction: Persons who thus avoid using discretion or making decisions, cause delays. Delays are annoying. An employee who does not do, is expressing lack of concern for the customer. He may be perceived as not competent or without the right attitude. He is creating a dissatisfied customer.The decision against the company is made because of the apparent attitude of the employee.

34) Reinforcement as an approach to motivation: Prof. B. F. Skinner, a Harvard Psychologist, suggested reinforcement as an approach to motivation. According to this, the individuals should be rewarded for good performance whenever it occurs. When performance is not satisfactory, the specific situation should be analysed to determine the causes which hamper good performance.

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